An assessment of patient education and self-management in diabetes disease management--two case studies.

American Association of Diabetes Educators, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Population Health Management (Impact Factor: 1.18). 01/2009; 11(6):329-40. DOI: 10.1089/pop.2008.0012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diabetes affects 7.8% of Americans, nearly 24 million people, and costs $174 billion yearly. People with diabetes benefit from self-management; disease management (DM) programs are effective in managing populations with diabetes. Little has been published on the intersection of diabetes education and DM. Our hypothesis was that diabetes educators and their interventions integrate well with DM and effectively support providers' care delivery. A literature review was conducted for papers published within the past 3 years and identified using the search terms "diabetes educator" and "disease management." Those that primarily addressed community health workers or the primary care/community setting were excluded. Two case studies were conducted to augment the literature. Ten of 30 manuscripts identified in the literature review were applicable and indicate that techniques and interventions based on cognitive theories and behavioral change can be effective when coupled with diabetes DM. Better diabetes self-management through diabetes education encourages participation in DM programs and adherence to recommended care in programs offered by DM organizations or those that are provider based. Improved health outcomes and reduced cost can be achieved by blending diabetes education and DM. Diabetes educators are a critical part of the management team and, with their arsenal of goal setting and behavior change techniques, are an essential component for the success of diabetes DM programs. Additional research needs to be undertaken to identify effective ways to integrate diabetes educators and education into DM and to assess clinical, behavioral, and economic outcomes arising from such programs.

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    ABSTRACT: Ongoing interaction between diabetes educators and patients is necessary for making and sustaining behavior changes essential for glycemic control and subsequently reducing the complications of diabetes.PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of diabetes self-management support (DSMS) delivered via telephone or secure message and to compare clinical outcomes (A1C, LDL), behavioral goal achievement, and health maintenance task completion.Methods In sum, 150 persons with type 2 diabetes who completed diabetes self-management education self-selected DSMS methods: 1 in-person visit (n = 47), 3 brief visits by phone (n = 44), or 3 by secure message (n = 59) through electronic health record. DSMS included evaluation of goal achievement, barriers and facilitators, problem solving, and review of health maintenance exams. Self-reported data were collected at 9 months.ResultsThere were no significant differences among groups in main outcomes between baseline and 9-month follow-up. Behavioral goals were achieved by 59% of in-person participants, 73% phone, and 77% secure message. Sixty-two completed the intervention per protocol: fewer online than in-person or phone groups. Mean attempts to contact participants was significantly greater in the secure message group. Phone contact was significantly longer than secure message.Conclusions Telephone and secure message was feasible for providing DSMS. Three brief contacts by phone or secure message resulted in similar outcomes when compared to an in-person visit. Secure messaging required less staff time, but increased patient engagement is needed.
    The Diabetes Educator 04/2014; 40(4). DOI:10.1177/0145721714531337 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of a large population-based patient empowerment programme (PEP) on clinical outcomes and health service utilization rates in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting. A stratified random sample of 1,141 patients with T2DM enrolled to PEP between March and September 2010 were selected from general outpatient clinics (GOPC) across Hong Kong and compared with an equal number of T2DM patients who had not participated in the PEP (non-PEP group) matched by age, sex and HbA1C level group. Clinical outcomes of HbA1c, SBP, DBP and LDL-C levels, and health service utilization rates including numbers of visits to GOPC, specialist outpatient clinics (SOPC), emergency department (ED) and inpatient admissions, were measured at baseline and at 12-month post-recruitment. The effects of PEP on clinical outcomes and health service utilization rates were assessed by the difference-in-difference estimation, using the generalized estimating equation models. Compared with non-PEP group, PEP group achieved additional improvements in clinical outcomes over the 12-month period. A significantly greater percentage of patients in the PEP group attained HbA1C≤7% or LDL-C≤2.6 mmol/L at 12-month follow-up compared with the non-PEP group. PEP group had a mean 0.813 fewer GOPC visits in comparison with the non-PEP group. PEP was effective in improving the clinical outcomes and reduced the general outpatient clinic utilization rate over a 12-month period. Empowering T2DM patients on self-management of their disease can enhance the quality of diabetes care in primary care. NCT01935349.
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