Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relations of Cyberbullying With Depression, Substance Use, and Problematic Internet Use Among Adolescents

Psychology Department of Personality, Assessment and Treatment, University of Deusto, Vizcaya, Spain. Electronic address: .
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 2.75). 05/2013; 53(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.03.030
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To analyze the temporal and reciprocal relationships between being a victim of cyberbullying (CB) and three frequent problems during adolescence: depressive symptoms, substance use, and problematic Internet use; also, to analyze whether the relationship between CB and these psychological and behavioral health problems differs as a function of being only a victim or being both bully and victim. METHOD: A total of 845 adolescents (mean age = 15.2, SD = 1.2) completed measures at T1 and at T2, 6 months apart. The relationship among variables was analyzed using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: CB victimization at T1 predicted depressive symptoms and problematic Internet use at T2, and higher depressive symptoms and more substance use at T1 predicted more CB victimization at T2. However, the relationships of CB predicting substance use and problematic Internet use predicting CB were not significant. Bully-victims presented higher levels than victims of all three problem variables, both at T1 and T2. CONCLUSIONS: CB is predictive of some significant psychological and behavioral health problems among adolescents. Intervention efforts should pay attention to these in the prevention and treatment of consequences of CB.

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Available from: Peter K Smith, Aug 21, 2015
    • "A central question these studies attempt to answer is whether youth that exhibit depressive symptoms go into online spaces or behave in ways that make them more susceptible to experiencing cybervictimization or is depression a consequence of these experiences [29]. For example, longitudinal study by Gamez-Guadix et al. [27] explores associations between cybervictimization, depression, substance use, and problematic Internet use. They found that victimization at Time 1 predicted depression and problematic Internet use at Time 2. In addition, increased levels of depressed mood and substance use at Time 1 predicted more victimization at Time 2. However, additional time points may be needed to fully understand the temporal sequence of cybervictimization and mental health outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: An emerging body of literature suggests that victims of bullying report detrimental mental health outcomes, such as depression and anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cybervictimization, depression, and anxiety among school-aged youth over a 3-year time frame. Students in Grades 6 through 12 at the initial wave of the study responded to survey items designed to assess their online experiences, including cybervictimization and self-reported depression and anxiety at three separate time points, over a 3-year period. In total, 559 school-aged youth participated in the study. Results suggest a reciprocal relationship between cybervictimization and depression and cybervictimization and anxiety. More specifically, depression at Time 1 predicted cybervictimization at Time 2, depression at Time 2 predicted cybervictimization at Time 3, and cybervictimization at Time 1 predicted depression at Time 3. Additionally, cybervictimization at Time 1 predicted anxiety at Time 2, cybervictimization at Time 2 predicted anxiety at Time 3, and anxiety at Time 1 predicted cybervictimization at Time 2. Based on the findings from this study, cybervictimization, depression, and anxiety seem to have a reciprocal relationship. Therefore, educational and mental health professionals should consider interventions that address adolescents' online experiences, while supporting mental health and social and emotional learning. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.05.002 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Some studies ask teens to report what they have experienced in the previous 30 days or 6 months, whereas others ask about the current school year or longer. Gámez-Guadix et al [10] asked students to report whether they had " ever " experienced cyberbullying. The "
    Journal of Adolescent Health 10/2013; 53(4):431-2. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.030 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Education professionals and researchers are concerned by school bullying and cyberbullying because of its repercussions on students’ health and the school climate. However, only a few studies investigating the impact of school versus cyberbullying have systematically explored whether student victims and perpetrators are involved in school bullying only, cyberbullying only, or both. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the possible overlap, as well as the similarities and/or differences, between these two forms of bullying when taking modality of involvement into account. Individual interviews were conducted with 1422 junior high- and high-school students (girls = 43%, boys = 57%, mean age = 14.3 ± 2.7 years). Results showed that cyberbullying and school bullying overlapped very little. The majority of students involved in cyberbullying were not simultaneously involved in school bullying. Moreover, results indicated that psychosocial problems (psychological distress, social disintegration, general aggression) varied according to the form of bullying. Victims of school bullying had greater internalizing problems than cybervictims, while school bullies were more aggressive than cyberbullies. Given the sizable proportion of adolescents involved in bullying (school and cyber) and its significant relationship with mental health, the issue warrants serious attention from school and public health authorities.
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