Regulated ADAM17-dependent EGF family ligand release by substrate-selecting signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Ectodomain cleavage of cell-surface proteins by A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) is highly regulated, and its dysregulation has been linked to many diseases. ADAM10 and ADAM17 cleave most disease-relevant substrates. Broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitors have failed clinically, and targeting the cleavage of a specific substrate has remained impossible. It is therefore necessary to identify signaling intermediates that determine substrate specificity of cleavage. We show here that phorbol ester or angiotensin II-induced proteolytic release of EGF family members may not require a significant increase in ADAM17 protease activity. Rather, inducers activate a signaling pathway using PKC-α and the PKC-regulated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor 14D that is required for ADAM17 cleavage of TGF-α, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin. A second pathway involving PKC-δ is required for neuregulin (NRG) cleavage, and, indeed, PKC-δ phosphorylation of serine 286 in the NRG cytosolic domain is essential for induced NRG cleavage. Thus, signaling-mediated substrate selection is clearly distinct from regulation of enzyme activity, an important mechanism that offers itself for application in disease.
SourceAvailable from: Alison J Tyson-Capper[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a major player in the survival and proliferation of tumour cells and is overexpressed in up to 30 % of breast cancer cases. A considerable amount of work has been undertaken to unravel the activity and function of HER2 to try and develop effective therapies that impede its action in HER2 positive breast tumours. Research has focused on exploring the HER2 activated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathways for therapies. Despite the advances, cases of drug resistance and recurrence of disease still remain a challenge to overcome. An important aspect for drug resistance is the complexity of the HER2 signaling network. This includes the crosstalk between HER2 and hormone receptors; its function as a transcription factor; the regulation of HER2 by protein-tyrosine phosphatases and a complex network of positive and negative feedback-loops. This review summarises the current knowledge of many different HER2 interactions to illustrate the complexity of the HER2 network from the transcription of HER2 to the effect of its downstream targets. Exploring the novel avenues of the HER2 signaling could yield a better understanding of treatment resistance and give rise to developing new and more effective therapies.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10911-014-9329-5 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we discuss the main mechanisms of GPCR-mediated cell-surface receptors transactivation and the pathways involved in intracellular responses induced by GPCR agonists. These studies may suggest the design of novel strategies for therapeutic interventions.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2014; 15(11):19700-19728. DOI:10.3390/ijms151119700 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flt is one of the cell surface VEGF receptors which can be cleaved to release an N-terminal extracellular fragment which, like alternately transcribed soluble Flt1 (sFlt1), can antagonize the effects of VEGF. In HUVEC and in HEK293 cells where Flt1 was expressed, metalloprotease inhibitors reduced Flt1 N-terminal cleavage. Overexpression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 increased cleavage while knockdown of ADAM10 and ADAM17 reduced N-terminal cleavage suggesting that these metalloproteases were responsible for Flt1 cleavage. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation increased the abundance and the cleavage of Flt1 but this did not require any residues within the intracellular portion of Flt1. ALLN, a proteasomal inhibitor, increased the abundance of Flt1 which was additive to the effect of PKC. Removal of the entire cytosolic region of Flt1 appeared to stimulate cleavage of Flt1 and Flt1 was no longer sensitive to ALLN suggesting that the cytosolic region contained a degradation domain. Knock down of c-CBL, a ring finger ubiquitin ligase, in HEK293 cells increased the expression of Flt1 although it did not appear to require a previously published tyrosine residue (1333Y) in the C-terminus of Flt1. Increasing VEGFR2 expression increased VEGF-stimulated sFlt1 expression and progressively reduced the cleavage of Flt1 with Flt1 staying bound to VEGFR2 as a heterodimer. Our results imply that secreted sFlt1 and cleaved Flt1 will tend to have local effects as a VEGF antagonist when released from cells expressing VEGFR2 and more distant effects when released from cells lacking VEGFR2.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112794. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112794 · 3.53 Impact Factor