Regulated ADAM17-dependent EGF family ligand release by substrate-selecting signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Ectodomain cleavage of cell-surface proteins by A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) is highly regulated, and its dysregulation has been linked to many diseases. ADAM10 and ADAM17 cleave most disease-relevant substrates. Broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitors have failed clinically, and targeting the cleavage of a specific substrate has remained impossible. It is therefore necessary to identify signaling intermediates that determine substrate specificity of cleavage. We show here that phorbol ester or angiotensin II-induced proteolytic release of EGF family members may not require a significant increase in ADAM17 protease activity. Rather, inducers activate a signaling pathway using PKC-α and the PKC-regulated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor 14D that is required for ADAM17 cleavage of TGF-α, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin. A second pathway involving PKC-δ is required for neuregulin (NRG) cleavage, and, indeed, PKC-δ phosphorylation of serine 286 in the NRG cytosolic domain is essential for induced NRG cleavage. Thus, signaling-mediated substrate selection is clearly distinct from regulation of enzyme activity, an important mechanism that offers itself for application in disease.
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ABSTRACT: As key components of autocrine signaling, pericellular proteases, A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) in particular, are known to impact the microenvironment of individual cells and have significant implications in various pathological situations including cancer, inflammatory and vascular diseases.1-3 There’s great incentive to develop a high-throughput platform for single-cell measurement of pericellular protease activity, as it is essential for studying the heterogeneity of protease response and the corresponding cell behavioral consequences. In this work, we developed a microfluidic platform to simultaneously monitor protease activity of many single cells in a time-dependent manner. This platform isolates individual microwells rapidly on demand and thus allows the single-cell activity measurement of both cell-surface and secreted proteases by confining individual cells with diffusive FRET-based substrates. With this platform, we observed dose-dependent heterogeneous protease activation of HepG2 cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). To study the temporal behavior of PMA-induced protease response, we monitored the pericellular protease activity of same single cells during three different time periods and revealed the diversity in the dynamic patterns of single-cell protease activity profile upon PMA stimulation. This kind of unique temporal information of single-cell protease response can help unveil the complicated functional role of pericellular proteases.Integrative Biology 03/2015; 7(5). DOI:10.1039/C5IB00019J · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The liver displays an outstanding wound healing and regenerative capacity unmatched by any other organ. This reparative response is governed by a complex network of inflammatory mediators, growth factors and metabolites that are set in motion in response to hepatocellular injury. However, when liver injury is chronic, these regenerative mechanisms become dysregulated, facilitating the accumulation of genetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell proliferation and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) signaling system has been identified as a key player in all stages of the liver response to injury, from early inflammation and hepatocellular proliferation to fibrogenesis and neoplastic transformation. The EGFR system engages in extensive crosstalk with other signaling pathways, acting as a true signaling hub for other growth factors, cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Here, we briefly review essential aspects of the biology of the EGFR, the other ErbB receptors, and their ligands in liver injury, regeneration and HCC development. Some aspects of the preclinical and clinical experience with EGFR therapeutic targeting in HCC are also discussed.Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 49(1). DOI:10.1007/s00535-013-0907-x · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we discuss the main mechanisms of GPCR-mediated cell-surface receptors transactivation and the pathways involved in intracellular responses induced by GPCR agonists. These studies may suggest the design of novel strategies for therapeutic interventions.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2014; 15(11):19700-19728. DOI:10.3390/ijms151119700 · 2.34 Impact Factor