IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that patients who have undergone gastric bypass surgery (GBS) have a higher risk of inpatient care for alcohol dependence than those who have undergone restrictive surgery. This highlights a need for health care providers to be aware of this so that early detection and treatment can be put in place. OBJECTIVE To evaluate inpatient care for alcohol abuse before and after GBS compared with restrictive surgery (vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric banding). DESIGN Retrospective population-based cohort study including all patients who underwent GBS, vertical banded gastroplasty, and gastric banding in Sweden from 1980 through 2006. The relative risk of inpatient care for alcohol abuse was studied before and after surgery. SETTING All hospitals in Sweden performing bariatric surgery. PARTICIPANTS A total of 11 115 patients older than 18 years (mean [SD] age, 40.0 [10.3] years; 77% women) who underwent a primary gastric bypass procedure, vertical banded gastroplasty, and gastric banding during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Inpatient care for alcohol abuse, substance abuse, depression, and attempted suicide. RESULTS Mean follow-up time was 8.6 years. Before surgery, there was no difference in inpatient treatment of alcohol abuse among patients who underwent gastric bypass or a restrictive procedure (incidence rate ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). After surgery, there was a 2-fold increased risk of inpatient care for alcohol abuse among patients who had GBS compared with those who had restrictive surgery (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.2). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients who had undergone GBS had more than double the risk of inpatient care for alcohol abuse postoperatively compared with patients undergoing a restrictive procedure, highlighting a need for healthcare professionals to be aware of this for early detection and treatment.
"Baseline AUD in year 1 did not show statistically significant differences in frequency (7.6% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.98); however, a significant increase in the prevalence of AUD was observed between the first and second years after surgery (7.3% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01); with greater likelihood AUD increase post-surgery independently related to RYGB, but not to restrictive procedures. A large-scale study from Sweden  documented that patients who have undergone RYGB surgery have a twofold-increased risk of inpatient care for alcohol abuse than those who have undergone restrictive bariatric surgery. Kalarchian et al. used a structured clinical interview (n = 207) to diagnose AUD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To describe the clinical phenotype of alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment-seeking patients with Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RYGB) history; and to compare it to AUD obese non-RYGB controls.
Retrospective study of electronic medical records for all patients 30-60 years treated at the Mayo Clinic Addiction Treatment Program, between June, 2004 and July, 2012. Comparisons were performed with consumption patterns pre-RYGB and at time of treatment; excluding patients with AUD treatments pre-RYGB.
Forty-one out of 823 patients had a RYGB history (4.9%); 122 controls were selected. Compared to controls, the RYGB group had significantly more females [n = 29 (70.7%) vs. n = 35 (28.7%) p < 0.0001]; and met AUD criteria at a significantly earlier age (19.1 ± 0.4 vs. 25.0 ± 1 years old, p = 0.002). On average, RYGB patients reported resuming alcohol consumption 1.4 ± 0.2 years post-surgery, meeting criteria for AUD at 3.1 ± 0.5 years and seeking treatment at 5.4 ± 0.3 years postoperatively. Pre-surgical drinks per day were significantly fewer compared to post-surgical consumption [2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 8.1 ± 1.3, p = 0.009]. Prior to admission, RYGB patients reported fewer drinking days per week vs. controls (4.7 ± 0.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.8 days, p = 0.02). Neither RYGB, gender, age nor BMI were associated with differential drinking patterns.
The results of this study suggest that some patients develop progressive AUD several years following RYGB. This observation has important clinical implications, calling for AUD-preventive measures following RYGB. Further large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the association between RYGB and AUD onset.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research 09/2014; 78(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.019 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Substance use disorder (SUD) may develop de novo for a subgroup of weight loss surgery patients, particularly those who have had the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. The present study examined the rate of SUD in a broad sample of RYGB patients and identified associated behavioral and psychological factors.
Participants included 143 RYGB patients; the majority were women (n = 120; 83.9 %) and white (n = 135; 94.4 %). Participants completed a web-based survey assessing retrospective accounts of presurgical substance use, eating pathology, family history, and traumatic history, postsurgical substance use, life stressors, and global trait-like measures (emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and coping skills).
A subgroup (n = 28, 19.6 %) of post-RYGB patients met criteria for probable SUD; however, the majority of those who met SUD criteria postsurgery (n = 19, 68 %) did not report a pre-RYGB SUD history. Family history of substance abuse, poor coping skills, and potential life stressors were related to post-RYGB SUD, particularly for the new-onset group. Additionally, the majority of those who met criteria for pre-RYGB SUD (n = 21, 70 %) did not continue to meet SUD criteria following RYGB.
Findings highlight a subgroup of post-RYGB patients reporting new-onset SUD, which is unexpected among middle-aged women. Importantly, findings also indicate that many patients with presurgical SUD did not relapse postsurgery. Assessing for family history of SUD and coping skills at the presurgical evaluation is recommended. Future research should identify psychological and physiological risk factors for SUD postsurgery and examine protective factors of those who discontinue substance use postsurgery.
Obesity Surgery 06/2014; 24(11). DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1317-8 · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bariatric or weight loss surgery (WLS) patients are overrepresented in substance abuse treatment, constituting about 3% of admissions; about 2/3 of such patients deny problematic substance use prior to WLS. It is important to advance our understanding of the emergence of substance use disorders (SUDs) – particularly the New Onset variant -- after WLS. Burgeoning research with both animal models and humans suggests that “food addiction” may play a role in certain forms of obesity, with particular risk conferred by foods high in sugar but low in fat. Therefore, we hypothesized that WLS patients who reported pre-WLS problems with high-sugar/low-fat foods and those high on the glycemic index (GI) would be those most likely to evidence New Onset SUDs after surgery. Secondary data analyses were conducted using a de-identified database from 154 bariatric surgery patients (88% female, Mage = 48.7 yrs, SD = 10.8, Mtime since surgery = 2.7 yrs, SD = 2.2 yrs). Participants who endorsed pre-surgical problems with high-sugar/low-fat foods and high GI foods were at greater risk for New Onset SUD in the post-surgical period. These findings remained significant after controlling for other predictors of post-surgical SUD. Our findings provide evidence for the possibility of addiction transfer among certain bariatric patients.
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