Variant Adrenal Venous Anatomy in 546 Laparoscopic Adrenalectomies.
ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Knowing the types and frequency of adrenal vein variants would help surgeons identify and control the adrenal vein during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. OBJECTIVES To establish the surgical anatomy of the main vein and its variants for laparoscopic adrenalectomy and to analyze the relationship between variant adrenal venous anatomy and tumor size, pathologic diagnosis, and operative outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS In a retrospective review of patients at a tertiary referral hospital, 506 patients underwent 546 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies between April 22, 1993, and October 21, 2011. Patients with variant adrenal venous anatomy were compared with patients with normal adrenal venous anatomy regarding preoperative variables (patient and tumor characteristics [size and location] and clinical diagnosis), intraoperative variables (details on the main adrenal venous drainage, any variant venous anatomy, duration of operation, rate of conversion to hand-assisted or open procedure, and estimated blood loss), and postoperative variables (transfusion requirement, reoperation for bleeding, duration of hospital stay, and histologic diagnosis). INTERVENTION Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of variant adrenal venous anatomy and its relationship to tumor characteristics, pathologic diagnosis, and operative outcomes. RESULTS Variant venous anatomy was encountered in 70 of 546 adrenalectomies (13%). Variants included no main adrenal vein identifiable (n = 18), 1 main adrenal vein with additional small veins (n = 11), 2 adrenal veins (n = 20), more than 2 adrenal veins (n = 14), and variants of the adrenal vein drainage to the inferior vena cava and hepatic vein or of the inferior phrenic vein (n = 7). Variants occurred more often on the right side than on the left side (42 of 250 glands [17%] vs 28 of 296 glands [9%], respectively; P = .02). Patients with variant anatomy compared with those with normal anatomy had larger tumors (mean, 5.1 vs 3.3 cm, respectively; P < .001), more pheochromocytomas (24 of 70 [35%] vs 100 of 476 [21%], respectively; P = .02), and more estimated blood loss (mean, 134 vs 67 mL, respectively; P = .01). For patients with variant anatomy vs those with normal anatomy, the rates of transfusion requirement (2 of 70 [3%] vs 10 of 476 [2%], respectively; P = .69) and reoperation for bleeding (1 of 70 [1%] vs 3 of 476 [1%]; P = .46) were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Understanding variant adrenal venous anatomy is important to avoid bleeding during laparoscopic adrenalectomy, particularly in patients with large tumors or pheochromocytomas. Surgeons should anticipate a higher probability of adrenal vein variants when operating on pheochromocytomas and larger adrenal tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 11/2014; 27(8):1253-1263. DOI:10.1002/ca.22374 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered to be the standard of care for the surgical excision of adrenal masses. The transperitoneal laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches are described. Both are safe and as effective as open adrenalectomy, with the added benefit of the minimally invasive approach. It can be utilized for patients requiring surgery for a phaeochromocytoma, adrenal adenoma, adrenal adenocarcinoma, Cushing’s syndrome, neuroblastoma, and an incidentaloma. Relative contraindications include previous surgery of the liver or kidney, large tumours (> 8–10 cm in diameter) or coagulation disorders. Although the transperitoneal route is used more widely, the retroperitoneal approach provides direct access to the adrenal gland and easy visualization of the adrenal vein. It avoids also colonic mobilization, minimizes the risk of injury to hollow viscera, and the potential risk of adhesion formation. However, the reversed orientation of the kidney and hilum, combined with a significantly smaller working space, may make this approach difficult to master.Journal of pediatric urology 01/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.10.024 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence supports the use of robotic surgery for the minimally invasive surgical management of adrenal masses. To describe a contemporary step-by-step technique of robotic adrenalectomy (RA), to provide tips and tricks to help ensure a safe and effective implementation of the procedure, and to compare its outcomes with those of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of consecutive patients who underwent RA performed by a single surgeon between April 2010 and October 2013. LA cases performed by the same surgeon between January 2004 and May 2010 were considered the control group. The main steps of our current surgical technique for RA are described in this video tutorial: patient positioning, port placement, and robot docking; exposure of the adrenal gland; identification and control of the adrenal vein; circumferential dissection of the adrenal gland; and specimen retrieval and closure. Demographic parameters and main surgical outcomes were assessed. A total of 76 cases (RA: 30; LA: 46) were included in the analysis. Median tumor size on computed tomography (CT) was significantly larger in the LA group (3cm [interquartile range (IQR): 3] vs 4cm [IQR: 3]; p=0.002). A significantly lower median estimated blood loss was recorded for the robotic group (50ml [IQR: 50] vs 100ml [IQR: 288]; p=0.02). The RA group presented five minor complications (16.7%) and one major (Clavien 3b) complication (3.3%), whereas four minor complications (8.7%) and one major (Clavien 3b) complication (2.3%) were observed in the LA group. No significant difference was noted between groups in terms of malignant histology (p=0.66) and positive margin rate (p=0.60). Distribution of pheochromocytomas in the LA group was significantly higher than in the RA group (43.5% vs 16.7%; p=0.02). The standardization of each surgical step optimizes the RA procedure. The robotic approach can be applied for a wide range of adrenal indications, recapitulating the safety and effectiveness of open surgery and potentially improving the outcomes of standard laparoscopy. In this report we detail our surgical technique for robotic removal of adrenal masses. This procedure has been standardized and can be offered to patients, with excellent outcomes.European Urology 05/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.04.003 · 12.48 Impact Factor