aMedical Practice Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA bDivision of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA cDivision of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA dDepartment of Pharmacy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA eThe Institute for Clinical Research & Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA fTufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University, Boston, MA gDivision of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT hDepartment of Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA iHarvard University Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), Boston, MA jDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA kDivision of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA lRagon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard, Charlestown, MA. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
(Impact Factor: 4.56).
05/2013; 63(5). DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31829b662b
The frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction among HIV-infected patients receiving steroid injections has not been reported, and the risk factors for this adverse event are poorly characterized.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from HIV-infected patients in the Partners HealthCare system (Boston, MA) who received corticosteroid injection(s) between 2002 and 2011. Chart review focused on HIV status, antiretroviral therapy [eg, protease inhibitors (PI)], steroid injection(s), and adrenal axis dysfunction (eg, adrenal insufficiency and/or Cushing syndrome). Because all cases occurred among patients on PIs, we performed additional detailed data extraction and conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to identify risk factors in this group.
One hundred seventy-one HIV-infected patients received ≥1 corticosteroid injection(s) in the study period. Nine cases (event frequency: 5.3%; 95% confidence interval: 2.4% to 9.8%) of secondary adrenal insufficiency were diagnosed; 5 (55%) of these 9 patients also had clinical evidence of Cushing syndrome. All cases occurred among the 81 patients on PIs (event frequency among those on PIs: 11.1%; 95% confidence interval: 5.2% to 20.0%). Among patients on PIs, the major risk factor for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction was having ≥2 injections within 6 months.
In this retrospective cohort study, 11% of HIV-infected patients on PIs at the time of steroid injection were later diagnosed with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction. Corticosteroid injections in HIV-infected patients on PIs should only be used with great caution and close monitoring.