The aim of this study was to investigate the whitening and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica by determining their tyrosinase inhibition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities.
Essential oils of C. japonica leaves were extracted with distilled water, and after condensation of volatile constituents, the condensates were extracted with ethyl acetate. Crude essential oils of C. japonica were divided into six fractions by thin layer chromatography and open column chromatography, and their chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. Major compounds of fractions were composed of kaurene, bornyl acetate, nezukol, (-)-4-terpineol, δ-cadinene, α-terpineol, γ-eudesmol, α-eudesmol and elemol.
For tyrosinase inhibitory activity using two substrates, l-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), kaurene, bornyl acetate and nezukol were highly effective. In antioxidant activity, (-)-4-terpinenol and δ-cadinene showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, and bornyl acetate and nezukol indicated extremely high SOD-like activity.
Therefore, bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from C. japonica essential oil, which showed highly active whitening and antioxidant activities, have potential applications in cosmeceutical materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6.The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant.Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism.A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol.A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article the mechanisms by which oxygen radicals are produced by neutrophils and macrophages are discussed and also the means by which these radicals and their metabolites may cause cell and tissue injury. The increased oxygen consumption which occurs with the activation of neutrophils and macrophages results in the secretion of both superoxide anion (O2̄) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It is suggested that NADPH oxidase is present in the cell membrane where the pyridine nucleotide binding site may be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane while the O2̄ forming oxidase component is present within or on the external surface of the plasma membrane. The mechanism for the generation of H2O2 from O2̄ is discussed as is the formation of reactive oxygen derived metabolites. The exact mechanism by which oxygen radicals cause cell and tissue injury is not known but by using the erythrocyte as a model it is proposed that the oxygen radicals have a direct toxic effect on the cell membrane. There is also evidence that O2̄ can oxidate oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. H2O2 will then diffuse through the membrane and react with methemoglobin forming a cytotoxic peroxide-ferriheme complex and cytolysis ensues. Because the generation of oxygen metabolites occurs concurrently with phagocytic uptake it is proposed that the cytolytic effects of neutrophils and macrophages via oxygen metabolite generation may be an important mechanism of cell injury. The oxygen metabolites are also able to generate chemotactic factors and thus potentiate the inflammatory response. (Murray, Johannesburg).
American Journal Of Pathology 07/1982; 107(3):395-418. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary cancer. For example, d-limonene, which comprises over 90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary cancer during the initiation phase as well as the promotion/progression phase. Similarly, the monoterpenoids carveol, uroterpenol, and sobrerol have chemopreventive activity against mammary cancer when fed during the initiation phase. d-limonene and perillyl alcohol, a more potent analog of limonene, also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, tumor redifferentiation, and/or inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Thus, monoterpenes act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention of mammary and other cancers.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/1997; 46(2-3):191-7. DOI:10.1023/A:1005939806591 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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