Whitening and antioxidant activities of bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from Cryptomeria japonica essential oil.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the whitening and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica by determining their tyrosinase inhibition, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activities. Essential oils of C. japonica leaves were extracted with distilled water and after condensation of volatile constituents, the condensates were extracted with ethyl acetate. Crude essential oils of C. japonica were divided into six fractions by thin layer chromatography and open column chromatography, and their chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. Major compounds of fractions were composed of kaurene, bornyl acetate, nezukol, (-)-4-terpineol, δ-cadinene, α-terpineol, γ-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and elemol. For tyrosinase inhibitory activity using two substrates, L-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), kaurene, bornyl acetate and nezukol were highly effective. In antioxidant activity, (-)-4-terpinenol and δ-cadinene showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, and bornyl acetate and nezukol indicated extremely high SOD like activity. Therefore, bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from C. japonica essential oil, which showed highly active whitening and antioxidant activities, have potential applications in cosmeceutical materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- SourceAvailable from: nature.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growth and melanization are intimately related in melanoma cells. MSH, by promoting elevated cyclic AMP levels, causes increases in melanization, cessation of growth, and gross morphologic changes in Cloudman S-91 melanoma cells. Growth inhibition results from high levels of cyclic AMP while growth stimulation occurs with lower levels. During melanization, oxidation products of tyrosine are generated which are toxic to the cells. Genetic studies have revealed that some of these processes are related through common biochemical pathways. This article reviews work of recent years on such regulatory mechanisms in melanoma.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 05/1976; 66(4):201-9. · 6.19 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6.The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant.Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism.A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol.A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.European Journal of Biochemistry. 03/2005; 47(3):469 - 474.
- American Journal Of Pathology 07/1982; 107(3):395-418. · 4.52 Impact Factor