Self-assembling influenza nanoparticle vaccines elicit broadly neutralizing H1N1 antibodies.
ABSTRACT Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to design self-assembling nanoparticles that elicit broader and more potent immunity than traditional influenza vaccines. The viral haemagglutinin was genetically fused to ferritin, a protein that naturally forms nanoparticles composed of 24 identical polypeptides. Haemagglutinin was inserted at the interface of adjacent subunits so that it spontaneously assembled and generated eight trimeric viral spikes on its surface. Immunization with this influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres more than tenfold higher than those from the licensed inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, it elicited neutralizing antibodies to two highly conserved vulnerable haemagglutinin structures that are targets of universal vaccines: the stem and the receptor binding site on the head. Antibodies elicited by a 1999 haemagglutinin-nanoparticle vaccine neutralized H1N1 viruses from 1934 to 2007 and protected ferrets from an unmatched 2007 H1N1 virus challenge. This structure-based, self-assembling synthetic nanoparticle vaccine improves the potency and breadth of influenza virus immunity, and it provides a foundation for building broader vaccine protection against emerging influenza viruses and other pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: Malaysia first reported H5N1 poultry case in 2004 and subsequently outbreak in poultry population in 2007. Here, a recombinant gene encoding of peptide epitopes, consisting fragments of HA1, HA2 and a polybasic cleavage site of H5N1 strain Malaysia, was amplified and cloned into pET-47b(+) bacterial expression vector. DNA sequencing and alignment analysis confirmed that the gene had no alteration and in-frame to the vector. Then, His-tagged truncated HA protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under 1 mM IPTG induction. The protein expression was optimized under a time-course induction study and further purified using Ni-NTA agarose under reducing condition. Migration size of protein was detected at 15 kDa by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody and demonstrated no discrepancy compared to its calculated molecular weight.Tropical biomedicine 12/2014; 31(4):1-10.
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ABSTRACT: Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein-ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors.Biomacromolecules 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1021/bm5014469
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ABSTRACT: The use of vaccination against the influenza virus remains the most effective method of mitigating the significant morbidity and mortality caused by this virus. Antibodies elicited by currently licensed influenza vaccines are predominantly hemagglutination-inhibition (HI)-competent antibodies that target the globular head of HA thus inhibiting influenza virus entry into target cells. These antibodies predominantly confer homosubtypic/strain specific protection and only rarely confer heterosubtypic protection. However, recent academia or pharma-led R&D towards the production of a "universal vaccine" has centered on the elicitation of antibodies directed against the stalk of the influenza HA that has been shown to confer broad protection across a range of different subtypes (H1 to H16). The accurate and sensitive measurement of antibody responses elicited by these "next-generation" influenza vaccines is however hampered by the lack of sensitivity of the traditional influenza serological assays hemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis (SRH) and microneutralization (MN). Assays utilizing pseudotypes, chimeric viruses bearing influenza glycoproteins, have been shown to be highly efficient for the measurement of homosubtypic and heterosubtypic broadly-neutralizing antibodies, making them ideal serological tools for the study of cross-protective responses against multiple influenza subtypes with pandemic potential. In this review, we will analyze and compare literature involving the production of influenza pseudotypes with particular emphasis on their use in serum antibody neutralization assays. This will enable us to establish the parameters required for optimization and propose a consensus protocol to be employed for the further deployment of these assays in influenza vaccine immunogenicity studies.Frontiers in Immunology 03/2015; 6(161). DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00161