Article

Anthrax threat: a review of clinical and diagnostic measures.

Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College Najran University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol 04/2013; 43(1):147-66. DOI: 10.12816/0006374
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Anthrax is the plague of the ancient world and its existence is confirmed by the Roman poet Virgil. Also it is a threat in the modern world as it can be used in biological wars and bioterrorism. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis an unmovable, aerobic, gram-positive rod. It forms spores, which can survive for years in the environment. Three clinical forms result after exposure to anthrax spores: cutaneous, respiratory, and gastro- intestinal. The cutaneous anthrax commonly prevails among humans. The respiratory form occurs most likely due to inhalation of the bacterial spores, whereas the gastrointestinal form happens after spores' ingestion. Prophylactic, early diagnosis and proper treatment will reduce mortalities of anthrax. Thus, the physicians, senior nurses and individuals at risk should be aware of the danger of this disease.

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