Lysophosphatidic Acid Mediates Myeloid Differentiation within the Human Bone Marrow Microenvironment
ABSTRACT Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic phospholipid present in the blood and certain tissues at high concentrations; its diverse effects are mediated through differential, tissue specific expression of LPA receptors. Our goal was to determine if LPA exerts lineage-specific effects during normal human hematopoiesis. In vitro stimulation of CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitors by LPA induced myeloid differentiation but had no effect on lymphoid differentiation. LPA receptors were expressed at significantly higher levels on Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMP) than either multipotent Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPC) or Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLP) suggesting that LPA acts on committed myeloid progenitors. Functional studies demonstrated that LPA enhanced migration, induced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of isolated CMP, but had no effect on either HSPC or CLP. Analysis of adult and fetal human bone marrow sections showed that PPAP2A, (the enzyme which degrades LPA) was highly expressed in the osteoblastic niche but not in the perivascular regions, whereas Autotaxin (the enzyme that synthesizes LPA) was expressed in perivascular regions of the marrow. We propose that a gradient of LPA with the highest levels in peri-sinusoidal regions and lowest near the endosteal zone, regulates the localization, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors within the bone marrow marrow.
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ABSTRACT: We report on a new, sensitive, and fast LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 25 key sphingolipid components in human plasma, including phosphorylated sphinganine and sphingosine, in a single 9-min run. This method enables an effective and high-throughput coverage of the metabolic changes involving the sphingolipidome during physiological or pathological states. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by reversed-phase LC-MS/MS. Exogenous odd-chain lipids are used as cost-effective but reliable internal standards. The method was fully validated in surrogate matrix and naive human plasma following FDA guidelines. Sample stability and dilution integrity were also tested and verified.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8585-6 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacological mitigation of injuries caused by high-dose ionizing radiation is an unsolved medical problem. A specific nonlipid agonist of the type 2 G protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA2) 2-[4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzoisoquinolin-2-yl)butylsulfamoyl]benzoic acid (DBIBB) when administered with a postirradiation delay of up to 72 hr reduced mortality of C57BL/6 mice but not LPA2 knockout mice. DBIBB mitigated the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome, increased intestinal crypt survival and enterocyte proliferation, and reduced apoptosis. DBIBB enhanced DNA repair by augmenting the resolution of γ-H2AX foci, increased clonogenic survival of irradiated IEC-6 cells, attenuated the radiation-induced death of human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors and enhanced the survival of the granulocyte/macrophage lineage. DBIBB also increased the survival of mice suffering from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome after total-body irradiation. DBIBB represents a drug candidate capable of mitigating acute radiation syndrome caused by high-dose γ-radiation to the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes and megakaryocytes (MK) are derived from a common progenitor that undergoes lineage specification. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid growth factor was previously shown to be a regulator for erythropoietic process through activating LPA receptor 3 (LPA3). However, whether LPA affects megakaryopoiesis remains unclear. In this study, we used K562 leukemia cell line as a model to investigate the roles of LPA in MK differentiation. We demonstrated that K562 cells express both LPA2 and LPA3, and the expression levels of LPA2 are higher than LPA3. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a commonly used inducer of megakaryopoiesis, reciprocally regulates the expressions of LPA2 and LPA3. By pharmacological blockers and knockdown experiments, we showed that activation of LPA2 suppresses whereas, LPA3 promotes megakaryocytic differentiation in K562. The LPA2-mediated inhibition is dependent on β-catenin translocation, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is a downstream signal for activation of LPA3. Furthermore, the hematopoietic transcriptional factors GATA-1 and FLI-1, appear to be involved in these regulatory mechanisms. Taken together, our results suggested that LPA2 and LPA3 may function as a molecular switch and play opposing roles during megakaryopoiesis of K562 cells.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 11/2014; 1851(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.11.009 · 4.50 Impact Factor