Endemic Fungal Infections in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated with Anti-TNF Antibody Therapy.
ABSTRACT : Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are susceptible to complications from pharmacologic treatment of their disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are being used increasingly in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and can be associated with adverse events, including common infections, and rarely the development of serious life-threatening opportunistic infections. TNF-α inhibitors have the ability to prevent an effective patient granulomatous response, and this may be associated with an increased risk of developing mycobacterial and certain fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis, endemic in several parts of the United States. The concern for invasive fungal infection was realized during clinical trials and further demonstrated after the marketing of TNF-α inhibitors. Because of this awareness, the Food and Drug Administration developed an adverse event-reporting system to capture cases of infections associated with the use of TNF-α inhibitors. These opportunistic fungi have a great degree of regional variability, and it has been very difficult to quantify the incidence of infection in patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Currently, there are no formal guidelines regarding the use of TNF-α inhibitors and these fungal infections. Considering that gastroenterologists have embraced the use TNF-α inhibitors as a valuable armamentarium in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, they must be aware of therapy-related infectious complications, including appropriate diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies. In this article, we explore the association of these fungal entities in relation to the TNF-α inhibitor therapy by considering information provided in the gastroenterology, infectious diseases, rheumatology, and transplant literature. Finally, we provide some recommendations on diagnosis and treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in many inflammatory diseases. Soluble TNF can be neutralized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and this is a widely-used therapeutic approach. However, some patients do not respond to anti-TNF therapy due to the increased expression of CD64 on monocytes and macrophages. A recent study has shown that CD64 captures anti-TNF mAbs via their Fcγ domain, which induces the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Specific blocking of CD64 could therefore be a promising strategy to improve the response to anti-TNF therapy. We used the CD64-specific antibody fragment H22(scFv) and tested its activity against the human CD64(+) cell line HL-60. When stimulated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ), these cells represent a pro-inflammatory phenotype of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We found that H22(scFv) binds selectively to and blocks CD64, preventing the capture of anti-TNF mAb. Importantly, H22(scFv) itself does not induce CD64 activation. We also found that transmembrane TNF on HL-60 cells stimulated with IFN-γ also contributes to the capture of anti-TNF mAb, although via their Fab domain. In conclusion, the specific blocking of CD64 by H22(scFv) could be used a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism for potentiating the effect of anti-TNF antibodies.mAbs 09/2014; 6(5):1283-9. DOI:10.4161/mabs.32182 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.Parasite Immunology 09/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1111/pim.12098 · 1.85 Impact Factor