Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.
ABSTRACT In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.
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ABSTRACT: Jalapeño peppers at intermediate ripening stages (IRS) are typically discarded at the packinghouse because they are not demanded for fresh consumption or industrial processing. These peppers have been scarcely studied in terms of pigment composition and bioactivity. In this study, the profile of pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) and antioxidant activity were determined in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at three IRS (brown, 50% red, and 75% red). Peppers contained 64 different pigments. Chlorophylls were the most abundant pigments in raw brown peppers while capsanthin was the most abundant at the other IRS. The content of most pigments decreased due to heat treatments. Several pheophytins and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated by heat processing. Boiling and grilling consistently decreased and increased the antioxidant activity of peppers, respectively. Tested peppers showed a more complex/abundant pigment content and higher antioxidant activity than those typically reported for green and red peppers.Food Chemistry 03/2014; 146:188-96. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to investigate the accumulation pattern of capsaicinoids and antioxidants such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in three hot pepper hybrids at five different harvesting stages: immature green, mature green, color break, red ripe and dried fruit. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents were maximum at mature green stage in both Sky Red (61.30 and 43.76 mg/100 g) and Wonder King (43.93 and 26.16 mg/100 g) hybrids, whereas Maha hybrid reached top values at color break stage (39.13 and 24.20 mg/100 g). The accumulation of total carotenoids showed an 8-fold increase from red ripe (12 mg/100 g) to dried fruit stage (96 mg/100 g), while a noticeable decline by 76 % was observed for ascorbic acid at same harvesting stages (150 vs. 36 mg/100 g, respectively). The three hot pepper hybrids showed great variations in the evolution of total phenolic contents during harvesting stages. Overall, the mature green stage was ideal to acquire maximum pungency due to capsaicinoids, while peppers at red ripe stage were best sources of ascorbic acid and dried fruits contained higher levels of total carotenoids.Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 10/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The evolution of total capsaicinoids and the individual contents of the five major capsaicinoids: nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin present in the Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), during fruit ripening, has been established. Capsaicinoids begin to accumulate gradually in the peppers from the beginning of its development up to a maximum concentration (1789 μmol/Kg FW). From this time there is initially a sharp decrease in the total capsaicinoid content (32%), followed by a gradual decrease until day 80 of ripening. The two major capsaicinoids present in the Cayenne pepper are capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which represent between 79% and 90%, respectively, of total capsaicinoids depending on fruit ripening. The relative content of capsaicin differs from the evolution of the other four capsaicinoids studied.Food Chemistry 01/2014; 153:200–206. · 3.33 Impact Factor