Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination
ABSTRACT In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.
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ABSTRACT: Level of variation in capsaicinoid content was evaluated in Capsicum accessions belonging to chilli land races from north-eastern India. Accessions from NE India showed enormous variation in morphological characters such as fruit shape, size, colour, and fruit position. Capsaicinoid content in 139 accessions varied from 0.02 to 72.05 mg/g. The ratio between two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, varied from 0.34 to 4.92. The capsaicinoid content among 92 accessions of Bhut Jolokia varied from 11.95 to 72.05 mg/g with corresponding pungency levels of 191,135–1,152,832 SHU. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.90) was obtained between capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content.Scientia Horticulturae 02/2015; 183. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red pepper carotenoids during post-harvest processing and storage is also reviewed. This review highlights the potential of red pepper carotenoids as a source of natural food colors and also discusses the need for a standardized approach for the analysis and reporting of composition of carotenoids in plant products and designing model systems for stability studies.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 01/2014; 52(3):1-14. DOI:10.1007/s13197-014-1260-7 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to develop a generic analytical method for the identification and quantitation of apolar plant metabolites in biomass using liquid chromatography-photo diode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS). During this study, a single generic sample preparation protocol was applied to extract apolar plant metabolites. Compound identification was performed using a single generic screening method for apolar compounds without the need for dedicated fractionation. Such a generic approach renders vast amounts of information and is virtually only limited by the solubility and detector response of the metabolites of interest. Method validation confirmed that this approach is applicable for quantitative purposes. Furthermore, an identification-quantitation strategy based on amMS and molar extinction coefficients was used for carotenoids, eliminating the need for reference standards for each carotenoid. To challenge the validated method, chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) were analyzed to unravel its complex phytochemicals composition (carotenoids, glycolipids, glycerolipids, capsaicinoids, lipid soluble vitamins).Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2014; 62(20). DOI:10.1021/jf500285g · 3.11 Impact Factor