Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination
ABSTRACT In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.
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- "different paprika genotypes at IRS but they did not identify carotenoid esters. Others have identified individual free, mono, and diesterified carotenoids in fruits from different pepper genotypes at the full-coloured ripening stage but not in fruits at IRS (Giuffrida et al., 2013; Schweiggert et al., 2005). Márkuz et al. (1999) identified several individual carotenoids (free, mono, and diesterified forms) in peppers at IRS; however, the chlorophylls and the fatty acid moiety in esters were not identified. "
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- "capsaicin:dihydrocapsaicin ratio varied from 0.33 to 4.92 (Table 1) which is significantly different from earlier reported capsaicin: dihydrocapsaicin ratios of 1 and 2 for C. annuum and C. frutescens accessions, respectively (Govindarajan and Sathyanarayana, 1991). However, our findings are quite similar to those of Giuffrida et al. (2013) "
ABSTRACT: Level of variation in capsaicinoid content was evaluated in Capsicum accessions belonging to chilli land races from north-eastern India. Accessions from NE India showed enormous variation in morphological characters such as fruit shape, size, colour, and fruit position. Capsaicinoid content in 139 accessions varied from 0.02 to 72.05 mg/g. The ratio between two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, varied from 0.34 to 4.92. The capsaicinoid content among 92 accessions of Bhut Jolokia varied from 11.95 to 72.05 mg/g with corresponding pungency levels of 191,135–1,152,832 SHU. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.90) was obtained between capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content.Scientia Horticulturae 02/2015; 183(1). DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2014.12.011 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to investigate the accumulation pattern of capsaicinoids and antioxidants such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in three hot pepper hybrids at five different harvesting stages: immature green, mature green, color break, red ripe and dried fruit. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents were maximum at mature green stage in both Sky Red (61.30 and 43.76 mg/100 g) and Wonder King (43.93 and 26.16 mg/100 g) hybrids, whereas Maha hybrid reached top values at color break stage (39.13 and 24.20 mg/100 g). The accumulation of total carotenoids showed an 8-fold increase from red ripe (12 mg/100 g) to dried fruit stage (96 mg/100 g), while a noticeable decline by 76 % was observed for ascorbic acid at same harvesting stages (150 vs. 36 mg/100 g, respectively). The three hot pepper hybrids showed great variations in the evolution of total phenolic contents during harvesting stages. Overall, the mature green stage was ideal to acquire maximum pungency due to capsaicinoids, while peppers at red ripe stage were best sources of ascorbic acid and dried fruits contained higher levels of total carotenoids.Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 10/2013; 68(4). DOI:10.1007/s11130-013-0386-5 · 1.98 Impact Factor