Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus Infections in Adolescent Females.
ABSTRACT Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Understanding risk factors for acquisition of CMV infection in adolescent females will help determine vaccine strategies.
Females (12-17 years) were recruited from primary care settings in Cincinnati, Galveston, Houston, and Nashville from June 2006 to July 2010 for a seroepidemiologic study, from which seronegative participants were recruited for a CMV vaccine trial. Participants (n = 1585) responded to questions regarding potential exposures. For those with young children in the home (n = 859), additional questions were asked about feeding and changing diapers, and for those > 14 years of age (n = 1162), questions regarding sexual activity were asked. Serum was evaluated for CMV antibody using a commercial immunoglobulin G assay.
Cytomegalovirus antibody was detected in 49% of participants. In the univariate analyses, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans, those with children < 3 years of age in the home, and those with a history of oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Among those with young children in the home, feeding children and changing diapers further increased the association with CMV infection. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only African Americans and household contact with young children were associated with CMV infection.
By age 12, evidence of CMV infection was common. Multiple factors regarding race and personal behaviors likely contribute to seroconversion earlier in life.
SourceAvailable from: Martina Loni Kadmon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pouchitis often occurs after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. It is usually deemed idiopathic and commonly responds to antibacterial therapy. To date, only a few cases of cytomegalovirus pouchitis have been documented, and only a single report describes pouchitis in a case of assumed primary cytomegalovirus infection.Journal of Medical Case Reports 05/2014; 8(1):163. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-163
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ABSTRACT: We observed previously that African American adolescents in Richmond reporting infrequent sexual activity had cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence rates one half that of their adult mothers and caregivers. We therefore sought to determine if sexually active African American adolescents have higher rates of CMV infection than sexually inactive African American adolescents. Cases (aged 13-18 years) sought care for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or pregnancy. Controls were sexually inactive and matched to cases for age, race, and gender and enrolled at the same clinic as cases and sought medical treatment unrelated to an STI. Subjects completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and were interviewed for determination of sexual activity. Two groups of sexually active cases were enrolled. The first group had a diagnosis of an STI. In this group, both cases and matched controls were seropositive at a rate of 32% (7/22 for cases and 7/22 for controls). In the second group, cases self-reported an STI but objective evidence was lacking. In this group, cases were seropositive at a rate of 38% (six of 16) compared with matched controls among whom 6.3% were seropositive (one in 16). The overall rate of seropositivity in all 38 cases was 34% compared with a rate of 21% for all controls (P=0.3, odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.6-7.5). Our results confirm lower rates of CMV infection among the current generation of African American adolescents compared with African American adults in Richmond, and suggest that this is not associated with sexual activity.Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 04/2014; 5:73-8. DOI:10.2147/AHMT.S60103