Genetic Evaluation of Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Recent advances have expanded our ability to conduct a comprehensive genetic evaluation for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). By evaluating recent literature, this review aims to bring the reader up-to-date on the genetic evaluation of DCM. Updated guidelines have been published. Mutations in BAG3, including a large deletion, were identified in 2 % of DCM. Truncating mutations in TTN were reported in 25 % of DCM. Two new genes have been reported with autosomal recessive DCM. These studies illustrate the role of improved technologies while raising the possibility of a complex genetic model for DCM. The inclusion of TTN has led to an increased genetic testing detection rate of 40 %. While our ability to identify disease-causing variants has increased, so has the identification of variants of unknown significance. A genetic evaluation for DCM must therefore address this complexity.
SourceAvailable from: Valentina Favalli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most cardiomyopathies are familial diseases. Cascade family screening identifies asymptomatic patients and family members with early traits of disease. The inheritance is autosomal dominant in a majority of cases, and recessive, X-linked, or matrilinear in the remaining. For the last 50 years, cardiomyopathy classifications have been based on the morphofunctional phenotypes, allowing cardiologists to conveniently group them in broad descriptive categories. However, the phenotype may not always conform to the genetic characteristics, may not allow risk stratification, and may not provide pre-clinical diagnoses in the family members. Because genetic testing is now increasingly becoming a part of clinical work-up, and based on the genetic heterogeneity, numerous new names are being coined for the description of cardiomyopathies associated with mutations in different genes; a comprehensive nosology is needed that could inform the clinical phenotype and involvement of organs other than the heart, as well as the genotype and the mode of inheritance. The recently proposed MOGE(S) nosology system embodies all of these characteristics, and describes the morphofunctional phenotype (M), organ(s) involvement (O), genetic inheritance pattern (G), etiological annotation (E) including genetic defect or underlying disease/substrate, and the functional status (S) of the disease using both the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage and New York Heart Association functional class. The proposed nomenclature is supported by a web-assisted application and assists in the description of cardiomyopathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients and family members in the context of genetic testing. It is expected that such a nomenclature would help group cardiomyopathies on their etiological basis, describe complex genetics, and create collaborative registries.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2014; 64(3):304–318. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.027 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy (CM) in children shares some features with cardiomyopathy in adults but also has many important unique features. Heretofore, genetic testing panels, testing strategies, and treatment recommendations have largely been based on studies in adult populations. In general, CMs in children are much more likely to be genetic and to have extracardiac manifestations that should be medically addressed. Therefore, genetic testing in children with CM is an essential part of their initial evaluation and the ongoing care of the child and family. CMs in children are more genetically heterogeneous, and many of the genes that are rare causes of CM in children are not currently included in testing panels, and future genetic testing is likely to increasingly utilize more comprehensive approaches such as whole exome/whole genome sequencing with focused analysis of all the genes that can cause CM in children.Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ppedcard.2015.01.001
Article: Inherited Cardiomyopathies[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathies (ie, diseases of the heart muscle) are major causes of morbidity and mortality. A significant percentage of patients with cardiomyopathies have genetic-based, inheritable disease and, over the past 2 decades the genetic causes of these disorders have been increasingly discovered. The genes causing these disorders when they are mutated appear to encode proteins that frame a "final common pathway" for that specific disorder, but the specifics of the phenotype, including age of onset, severity, and outcome is variable for reasons not yet understood. The "final common pathways" for the classified forms of cardiomyopathy include the sarcomere in the primarily diastolic dysfunction disorders hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, the linkage of the sarcomere and sarcolemma in the systolic dysfunction disorder dilated cardiomyopathy, and the desmosome in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is an overlap disorder and it appears that any of these "final common pathways" can be involved depending on the specific form of LVNC. The genetics and mechanisms responsible for these clinical phenotypes will be described.Circulation Journal 09/2014; 78(10). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-14-0893 · 3.69 Impact Factor