The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use, and HIV on Depressive Symptoms Among Abused Low-Income Urban Women
ABSTRACT Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.
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ABSTRACT: This repeated measures, descriptive study investigated the effect of Music and Account-Making for Behavioral-Related Adaptation (MAMBRA), a group psychoeducation music intervention, on symptoms reported by 41 incarcerated and community women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). Psychosocial measurements included: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; Speilberger State Anxiety Inventory; Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale; the UCLA Loneliness Scale, version 3; and the Index of Spouse Abuse. MAMBRA was administered over four sessions for five groups of women. Through descriptive and univariate statistics, psychosocial measures positively changed across the MAMBRA sessions. These findings suggest MAMBRA impacted IPV symptoms and may be an efficacious intervention. Future longitudinal studies with diverse samples are warranted.Issues in Mental Health Nursing 05/2014; 35(5):344-55. DOI:10.3109/01612840.2013.868962
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ABSTRACT: Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA “syndemic” among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with these SAVA factors and although social support is potentially protective for depression, little is understood about its impact on depression associated with the SAVA syndemic. Methods This paper investigates how women living with SAVA experience and describe depressive symptoms, and examines how the types of social support they access impact their experiences of SAVA and depressive symptoms. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive, low-income, urban women who experienced IPV and used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime. Interviews were analyzed based on study aims, principles of thematic content analysis, and grounded theory. Results Women identified multiple SAVA factors as catalysts for depression and noted their synergistic effect on depressive symptoms, which were both a trigger for and a result of drug use. Women accessed varying sources of social support to address their SAVA factors and associated symptoms of depression, relying on informal sources for instrumental support related to IPV and formal sources for support related to HIV, drug use, and depression. Conclusions These findings have important implications for health providers who serve SAVA-affected women, and suggest that comprehensively addressing all SAVA factors (and IPV in particular) and improving their access to quality social support at critical times is essential to improve their mental health.Women s Health Issues 10/2014; 24(5):551–557. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.05.004 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and control subjects who were never abused. African American and African Caribbean women aged 18 to 55 years were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, MD, and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history, and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than in women who were never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly 3 times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (adjusted odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 1.98-3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report ED use in the past year (P = .001). In combined-site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with an injury to ensure that the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes.Journal of Emergency Nursing 04/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jen.2014.01.015 · 1.13 Impact Factor