The Effect of tumor subsite on short-term outcomes and costs of care after oral cancer surgery
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine if epidemiologic differences exist between patients with oral tongue carcinoma compared to tumors arising from other oral cavity subsites, and the relationship between primary site and in-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay, and costs in patients undergoing surgery for oral cavity cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was analyzed for patients who underwent an ablative procedure for a malignant oral cavity neoplasm in 2001 to 2008 using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression modeling. RESULTS: Overall, there were 45,071 patients treated surgically for oral cavity cancer, with oral tongue cancer comprising 35% of all oral cavity tumors. Patients with oral tongue cancer were significantly more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4) and undergo neck dissection (OR = 1.4), and significantly less likely to be black (OR = 0.4), over 40 years of age (OR = 0.4), have Medicaid payer status (OR = 0.7), advanced comorbidity (OR = 0.7), receive care at a teaching hospital (OR = 0.5), and undergo pedicled or free flap reconstruction (OR = 0.6, P < .001). Oral tongue primary site was not associated with in-hospital mortality or surgical complications, but was significantly associated with a reduced incidence of medical complications (OR = 0.8, P = .005). After controlling for all other variables, oral tongue primary site disease was associated with a significantly reduced length of hospitalization and hospital-related costs. CONCLUSIONS: Oral tongue cancer is associated with a distinct epidemiologic profile compared to other oral cavity cancer subsites, and is associated with lower postoperative morbidity, length of hospitalization, and hospital-related costs. Further investigation is warranted to determine if biologic factors underlie these observations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2c. Laryngoscope, 2013.
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ABSTRACT: Background This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate and summarize the existing evidence on resource use and costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) in adult patients, to better understand the currently available data. The costs associated with HNC are complex, as the disease involves multiple sites, and treatment may require a multidisciplinary medical team and different treatment modalities. Methods Databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched to identify studies published in English between October 2003 and October 2013 analyzing the economics of HNC in adult patients. Additional relevant publications were identified through manual searches of abstracts from recent conference proceedings. Results Of 606 studies initially identified, 77 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in the assessment. Most included studies were conducted in the USA. The vast majority of studies assessed direct costs of HNC, such as those associated with diagnosis and screening, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, side effects of treatment, and follow-up care. The costs of treatment far exceeded those for other aspects of care. There was considerable heterogeneity in the reporting of economic outcomes in the included studies; truly comparable cost data were sparse in the literature. Based on these limited data, in the US costs associated with systemic therapy were greater than costs for surgery or radiotherapy. However, this trend was not seen in Europe, where surgery incurred a higher cost than radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Conclusions Most studies investigating the direct healthcare costs of HNC have utilized US databases of claims to public and private payers. Data from these studies suggested that costs generally are higher for HNC patients with recurrent and/or metastatic disease, for patients undergoing surgery, and for those patients insured by private payers. Further work is needed, particularly in Europe and other regions outside the USA; prospective studies assessing the cost associated with HNC would allow for more systematic comparison of costs, and would provide valuable economic information to payers, providers, and patientsPharmacoEconomics 05/2014; 32(9). DOI:10.1007/s40273-014-0169-3 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence suggests the incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma is increasing in young patients, many who have no history of tobacco use. Methods We clinically reviewed 89 oral tongue cancer patients. Exomic sequencing of tumor DNA from 6 non-smokers was performed and compared to previously sequenced cases. RNA from 20 tumors was evaluated by massively parallel sequencing to search for potentially oncogenic viruses. Results Non-smokers (53 of 89) were younger than smokers (36 of 89) (mean 50.4 vs. 61.9 years, P<0.001), and appeared more likely to be female, (58.5% vs. 38.9%, P=0.069). Non-smokers had fewer TP53 mutations (P=0.02) than smokers. No tumor-associated viruses were detected. Conclusions The young age of non-smoker oral tongue cancer patients, and fewer TP53 mutations suggest a viral role in this disease. Our efforts to identify such a virus were unsuccessful. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the drivers of carcinogenesis in these patients. Head Neck, 2014.
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ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is rapidly emerging as a major health problem across the globe. The Southeast Asian subcontinent has a high incidence of oral cancer and gingivobuccal complex forms the commonest subsite. The habit of chewing smokeless tobacco and areca nut are mainly responsible for this site predilection. The majority of literature and guidelines stem from the western world and there is ambiguity about tumor behavior among various continents. Thus, it is imperative to do this review for improving our understanding about this specific subsite, its behavior, treatment and outcomes. Gingivobuccal mucosal cancers (GBCs) usually present as large lesions with early mandibular involvement and cervical node metastasis. Level I nodes are often the first echelon. Surgical resection of the mandible is often en bloc with primary GBCs. A marginal or segmental mandibular resection is based on paramandibular soft tissue involvement. Microvascular free tissue reconstruction is ideal. Prognostic factors include tumor depth greater than 4 mm, skin involvement, nodal metastases and extra capsular spread. Early mandibular involvement and neck node metastases need to be considered in treatment planning. Appropriate reconstruction is key to early recovery and good quality of life.Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/MOO.0000000000000027 · 1.39 Impact Factor