Immunohistochemical and molecular pathology of ocular uveal melanocytoma: Evidence for somatic GNAQ mutations.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Intraocular melanocytoma is a rare naevus variant that can be located at the optic disc or within the uvea, and belongs to the group of non-epithelial-associated melanocytic lesions. We wanted to gain an understanding of the role of GNAQ, GNA11 and BRAF V600E in the pathogenesis of uveal melanocytoma and in cases of transformation to uveal melanoma and also to perform a differential immunohistochemical study comparing melanocytoma with uveal melanoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two patients were identified with melanocytoma, one of which had transformed to melanoma. In the latter case, the melanocytoma exhibited an immunophenotype that featured nuclear p27 and no HMB45 staining, with very low Cyclin D1 expression compared with the melanoma that featured little nuclear but more cytoplasmic p27 positivity, much higher Cyclin D1 expression and HMB45 positivity. The melanocytomas were negative for CD68 allowing distinction from melanophages. Both melanocytomas and the melanoma harboured mutations in GNAQ, with no mutations of GNA11 or BRAF V600E. CONCLUSIONS: GNAQ mutations are present in uveal melanocytomas and in a case of transformation to melanoma, implicating GNAQ-dependent mitogen activation signals, in the pathogenesis of uveal melanocytoma. This assists in explaining why a proportion of uveal melanocytoma can transform to uveal melanoma, known to harbour high-frequency GNAQ mutations at exon 5, codon 209.
Article: Update on Ophthalmic Oncology 201301/2014; 3(4):241-256. DOI:10.1097/APO.0000000000000079
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ABSTRACT: Purpose The removal of excessive melanin pigments that obscure ocular tissue morphology is important to address scientific questions and for differential diagnosis of ocular tumours based on histology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish an effective and fast melanin bleaching method for paraffin and frozen mouse and human ocular tissues. Methods Paraffin-embedded and frozen ocular specimens from mice and human donors were subjected to bleaching employing two methods. The first employed potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with oxalic acid, and the second 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To determine optimal bleaching conditions, depigmentation was carried out at various incubation times. The effect of diluents used for 10% H2O2 was assessed using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and deionized water. Three different slide types and two fixatives, which were ice-cold acetone with 80% methanol, and 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) were used to determine the optimal conditions for better tissue adherence during bleaching. All tissues were stained in hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. Results Optimal bleaching was achieved using warm 10% H2O2 diluted in PBS at 65°C for 120 minutes. Chromium-gelatin-coated slides prevented tissue detachment. Adherence of cryosections was also improved with post-fixation using 4% PFA and overnight air-drying at RT after cryosectioning. Tissue morphology was preserved under these conditions. Conversely, tissues bleached in KMnO4/oxalic acid demonstrated poor depigmentation with extensive tissue damage. Conclusions Warm dilute H2O2 at 65°C for 120 minutes rapidly and effectively bleached both cryo- and paraffin sections of murine and human ocular tissues.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102512. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102512 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PurposeTo examine whether GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations previously identified in uveal melanomas of Caucasians are associated with uveal melanomas in Chinese patients.MethodsUveal melanomas treated by primary enucleation in Chinese patients underwent a mutation analysis of GNAQ and GNA11 with sequencing of exon 5 and exon 4.ResultsThe study included 50 patients with uveal melanoma and with a mean age of 47.6±13.0 years. During the follow-up of at least 3 years, 20 (40%) patients developed extraocular metastases. The frequencies of GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations in uveal melanoma were 18% (9/50) and 20% (10/50), respectively. The mutations occurred exclusively in codon 209 of exon 5. No mutations were detected in exon 4. Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNAQ were c.626A>C(Q209P) (78%) and c.626A>T(Q209L) (22%). Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNA11 were exclusively c.626A>T(Q209L) (100%). In none of the tumors, mutations of BRAF and NRAS were detected. GNAQ/11 mutations were marginally (P = 0.045) associated with optic disc involvement. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, metastasis-free survival was not significantly (P = 0.94) associated with GNAQ/11 mutations.ConclusionsMutations of GNAQ and GNA11 can be found in Chinese patients as in Caucasian patients with uveal melanoma, with a higher frequency reported for Caucasian patients.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109699. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109699 · 3.53 Impact Factor