Motivations to quit cannabis use in an adult non-treatment sample: Are they related to relapse?
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The majority of cannabis smokers who quit do so without formal treatment, suggesting that motivations to quit are an important part of cessation process. However, little is known about how motivations relate to successful quitting. METHOD: A convenience sample of 385 non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers (58% male, age 16-64years at start of quit attempt) who made a "serious" (self-defined) quit attempt without formal treatment while not in a controlled environment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ) to assess their motivations to quit and outcome of the quit attempt. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify significant motivational factors. Subgroup comparisons used t-tests and ANOVA. Cox proportional hazard regression and the General Linear Model were performed to evaluate the influence of motivational factors, gender, and age on relapse status at time of interview and risk of relapse over time, with time between quit attempt and interview as a covariate. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis identified 6 motivational factors with eigenvalues >1 which accounted for 58.4% of the total variance: self-image and self-control, health concerns, interpersonal relationship concerns, legal concerns, social acceptability concerns, and self-efficacy. Women were more likely than men to be motivated by self-image/self-control, health concerns, and social acceptability concerns. Older individuals were more likely to be motivated by health concerns. At the time of interview, 339 subjects had relapsed. Self-image and self-control, health concerns, interpersonal relationship concerns, and social acceptability concerns were associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at the study interview. Legal concerns and social acceptability concerns were associated with significantly lower hazard ratios (0.88, 0.83) for relapse during the abstinent period. CONCLUSION: These findings show gender and age differences in motivations to quit cannabis smoking and that adult cannabis smokers have motivations to quite similar to those of adolescent cannabis smokers and of adults who quit alcohol and tobacco use without formal treatment. The findings suggest areas of focus to improve secondary prevention and psychosocial treatment efforts.
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ABSTRACT: Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults' severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30days completed an anonymous online survey. Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all p<.05), but not motivation to quit. Relative to marijuana, participants reported greater desire and a later stage of change for quitting cigarettes and were more likely to endorse a cigarette abstinence goal, yet they had lower expectancy of success with quitting cigarettes and with staying quit (all p<.001). Cigarette and marijuana use, temptations to use, and pros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts.Addictive behaviors 09/2013; 39(1). DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.08.035 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study compared marijuana use characteristics and quit behaviors between adults with and without depression or serious psychological distress (SPD). Drawing data for 39,133 non-institutionalized adults from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we assessed marijuana use status, frequent use, dependence or abuse, and quit behaviors in association with lifetime clinician-identified depression, lifetime and recent major depressive episode (MDE), and recent SPD. Adults with depression or SPD were at a significantly higher risk of being lifetime ever users (OR=1.60-2.08), past year users (OR=1.67-1.86), frequent users (OR=1.40-1.62), and dependent or abusing users (OR=2.32-3.05) compared with adults without these symptoms. Adults with depression or SPD had a lower quit ratio overall, but were equally or even more likely to make quit or self-regulation attempts. Further analysis suggested that adults with recent MDE had the greatest level of quit attempts or self-regulation attempts compared with adults without MDE or with past MDE. These findings highlight the need for tailored cessation programs to sustain quit attempts and promote successful quitting among adults with depression or SPD, especially those with recent symptoms.Addictive behaviors 12/2013; 39(4):761-767. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.12.013 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Craving is the central core of addiction and the reason for substance abuse continuation and also returning to addiction after treatment. In order to identify the effecting factors on craving, this study was performed to determine the role of self-compassion, cognitive self-control and illness perception in predicting the craving levels in people with substance dependency. Methods: This research was a correlational study. The statistical population included all thepeople with substance dependency referring to Shiraz addiction treatment centers from July to September 2013. One hundred and fifty people from this population were selected by multistage cluster random sampling method. Having conducted clinical interviews, they were being asked to response the self-compassion, cognitive self-control, illness perception, and craving questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed by tests of Pearson correlation and multivariate regression using SPSS 18.0 software. Results: The findings showed that craving was positively correlated with self-judgment (r = 0.21; P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with self-compassion (r = -0.31; P < 0.001), cognitive self-control (r = -0.18; P < 0.05), and illness coherence (r = -0.16; P < 0.05) as one component of illness perception. Results of the regression analyses showed that 10% of craving variance was explained by self-compassion, which was one of the components of self-compassion and 3% of its variance explained by cognitive-self-control. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-compassion and cognitive self-control are predictors of craving in people with substance dependency.