Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the major enzymes responsible for alcohol metabolism in humans. Emerging evidences have shown that functional polymorphisms in ADH and ALDH genes might play a critical role in increasing coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) risks; however, individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with susceptibility to CAD and MI. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedical databases from inception through December 1st, 2012. Crude relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twelve case-control studies were included with a total of 9,616 subjects, including 2,053 CAD patients, 1,436 MI patients, and 6,127 healthy controls. Meta-analysis showed that mutant genotypes (GA+AA) of the rs671 polymorphism in the ALDH2 gene were associated with increased risk of both CAD and MI (CAD: RR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.03-1.40, P=0.021; MI: RR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.11-1.57, P=0.002). However, there were no significant associations of ADH genetic polymorphisms to CAD and MI risks (CAD: RR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.73-1.15, P=0.445; MI: RR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.84-1.03, P=0.148). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides strong evidence that ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism may be associated with increased risks of CAD and MI. However, further studies are still needed to accurately determine whether ADH genetic polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to CAD and MI.
"Three recent meta-analyses consistently supported a contributory role of ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism in susceptibility to CAD and myocardial infarction, with the rs671-A allele associating with an increased risk of at least 1.2 and 1.32 –. Moreover, another study by Guo et al in Han Chinese found that the odds of CAD for carriers of rs671 A allele reached as high as 1.85 in the entire study cohort and 1.95 in non-drinkers, which was reasoned to be due to the changes of plasma HDL-C and endothelial asymmetric dimethylarginine levels . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between six polymorphisms of four alcohol metabolism relevant genes (ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH1b1, ALDH2) and the risk of CAD in Han Chinese.
Methods and Results
This was a hospital-based case-control study involving 1365 hypertensive patients. All study subjects were angiographically confirmed. Genotypes were determined with ligase detection reaction method. There was no observable deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for six examined polymorphisms in controls. The genotype and allele distributions of ALDH1b1 rs2073478 and ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms differed significantly between the two groups (P≤0.005), even after the Bonferroni correction. The most common allele combination was A-C-C-G-C-G (alleles in order of rs1229984, rs1693482, rs2228093, rs2073478, rs886205, rs671) and its frequency was slightly higher in controls than in CAD patients (P = 0.067). After assigning the most common allele combination as a reference, allele combination A-C-C-T-C-A, which simultaneously possessed the risk alleles of rs2073478 and rs671 polymorphisms, was associated with a 1.80-fold greater risk of CAD. Further, a two-locus model including rs2073478 and rs671 that had a maximal testing accuracy of 0.598 and a cross-validation consistency of 10 (P = 0.008) was deemed as the overall best MDR model, which was further validated by classical Logistic regression model.
Our findings provide clear evidence for both individual and interactive associations of ALDH1b1 and ALDH2 genes with the development of CAD in Han Chinese.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103161. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103161 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized by reduced glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, is controversial. Recent studies suggest that serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level, a conventional marker of excessive alcohol consumption, predicts the CKD incidence. Little information is available on the difference in the clinical impact of alcohol consumption and GGT on proteinuria.
The present cross-sectional survey included 332,296 Japanese people aged ≥40 years in 2008. To examine the associations of GGT and alcohol consumption with proteinuria, 134,600 men and 197,696 women were classified into 20 categories based on GGT quartiles and alcohol consumption categories, and their prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of proteinuria defined as ≥1+ of dipstick urinary protein were calculated after adjusting for clinically relevant factors.
Prevalence of proteinuria was 7.5 and 3.7 % in men and women, respectively. In both gender an association between alcohol consumption and proteinuria was in a J-shaped fashion with the lowest PRR of mild drinkers with ≤19 g/day of ethanol consumption, whereas an association between serum GGT level and proteinuria was linear. Compared with rare drinkers in the lowest GGT quartile, the subjects in higher GGT quartiles had a higher probability of proteinuria, irrespective of alcohol consumption. An optimal cutoff level of serum GGT was 43.6 and 23.2 IU/L in men and women, respectively.
The subjects with higher serum GGT level had a higher probability of proteinuria, regardless of alcohol consumption, suggesting that GGT has a clinically greater impact on CKD than alcohol consumption.
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