Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches, studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to five categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking-water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions were made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth.
"Substances classified in category 2 include 5 mutagenic substances (M), 11 substances impairing fertility (RF), and 6 substances with developmental toxicity (RE). Lead and second-hand tobacco smoke only are classified in category 1 of substances causing developmental toxicity (RE), since evidence of an association between exposure to these agents and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight is consistent [70-72]. The most common industrial uses of mutagenic and reprotoxic substances are related to the manufacture and/or use of adhesives, resins, additives, coatings, pigments, inks, polymers, papers, organic solvents, pesticides and woods and textiles. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Work-related health inequalities are determined to some extent by an unequal exposure to chemical and biological risk factors of disease. Although their potential economic burden in the European Union (EU-25) might be substantial, comprehensive reviews focusing on the distribution of these risks across occupational groups are limited. Thus, the main objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the exposure to chemical and biological hazards across occupational groups. In addition, main industrial applications of hazardous substances are identified and some epidemiological evidence is discussed regarding societal costs and incidence rates of work-related diseases.
Available lists of carcinogens, sensitisers, mutagens, reprotoxic substances and biological hazards were consulted. For each work-related hazard the main industrial application was identified in order to assess which ISCO occupational groups may be associated with direct exposure. Where available, information on annual tonnage production, risk assessment of the substances and pathogens, and other relevant data were collected and reported.
Altogether 308 chemical and biological hazards were identified which may account to at least 693 direct exposures. These hazards concentrate on the following major occupational groups: technicians (ISCO 3), operators (ISCO 8), agricultural workers (ISCO 6) and workers in elementary occupations (ISCO 9). Common industrial applications associated with increased exposure rates relate among others to: (1) production or application of pigments, resins, cutting fluids, adhesives, pesticides and cleaning products, (2) production of rubber, plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and (3) in agriculture, metallurgy and food processing industry, Societal costs of the unequal distribution of chemical and biological hazards across occupations depend on the corresponding work-related diseases and may range from 2900 EUR to 126000 EUR per case/year.
Risk of exposure to chemical and biological risks and work-related disease incidence are highly concentrated on four occupational groups. The unequal burden of exposure across occupations is an important contributing factor leading to health inequalities in society. The bulk of societal costs, however, are actually being borne by the workers themselves. There is an urgent need of taking into account the health impact of production processes and services on workers’ health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 07/2014; 9(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1745-6673-9-28 · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were measured in both maternal and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, TX. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD) was used to analyze for 22 PCB analytes. Results indicated that both pregnant mothers and their fetuses were exposed to a variety of PCB at relatively low levels (≤0.2 ng/ml), and that concentrations in maternal and cord blood were similar. Concentrations of total PCB (sum or all PCB congeners) averaged more than 2.5 ng/ml, with highest values exceeding 3 ng/ml. Although health implications are uncertain, reports in the literature of PCB-related health effects raise concerns about possible future health consequences, especially obesity and diabetes, in this potentially vulnerable population.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 11/2013; 76(22):1225-1235. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2013.848744 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of water spinach (EEWS) containing chlorophyll and lycopene on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in liver induced by heavy metals. The (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay were conducted to measure cytotoxicity and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Cytotoxicity was prevented at a concentration of 11.7 mg/L of EEWS. Both sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) and lycopene in EEWS were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MSn) as major components at m/z 722.64 and 535.45, respectively. The concentrations of SCC and lycopene were 0.12 and 0.04 mg from 100 g of dried powder, respectively. Approximately 99% cytotoxicity induced by Cd was inhibited by EEWS. However, the inhibitory effect attributed to generation of ROS was similar with SCC, lycopene, and EEWS. Our results indicated that EEWS was effective in reducing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by heavy metals in a HepG2 cell. Data suggest that the possible mechanism underlying the preventive action of SCC might be associated with diminished absorption of metal ions by chelating and blocking metal-mediated generation of ROS, while lycopene effects may be attributed to its high number of conjugated dienes that act as most potent singlet oxygen quenchers.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 12/2013; 76(23):1307-1315. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2013.851632 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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