Effect of Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Administration on Pain, Opioid Consumption, and Quality of Life after Complex Spine Surgery

*Associate Professor, Departments of General Anesthesiology and Outcomes Research, ‡Michael Cudahy Professor and Chair, ‖Research Fellow, #Research Coordinator, §§Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Outcomes Research, §Senior Biostatistician, Departments of Quantitative Health Sciences and Outcomes Research, **Assistant Professor, Department of General Anesthesiology, ††Professor, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery, ‡‡Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. †Clinical Research Fellow, Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Current affiliation: Internal Medicine Resident, Fairview Hospital, A Cleveland Clinic Hospital. Current affiliation: Fairview Hospital, a Cleveland Clinic hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 5.88). 05/2013; 119(4). DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297d4a5
Source: PubMed


The authors tested the primary hypothesis that perioperative IV lidocaine administration during spine surgery (and in the postanesthesia care unit for no more than 8 h) decreases pain and/or opioid requirements in the initial 48 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included major complications, postoperative nausea and vomiting, duration of hospitalization, and quality of life.

One hundred sixteen adults having complex spine surgery were randomly assigned to perioperative IV lidocaine (2 mg·kg·h) or placebo during surgery and in the postanesthesia care unit. Pain was evaluated with a verbal response scale. Quality of life at 1 and 3 months was assessed using the Acute Short-form (SF) 12 health survey. The authors initially evaluated multivariable bidirectional noninferiority on both outcomes; superiority on either outcome was then evaluated only if noninferiority was established.

Lidocaine was significantly superior to placebo on mean verbal response scale pain scores (P < 0.001; adjusted mean [95% CI] of 4.4 [4.2-4.7] and 5.3 [5.0-5.5] points, respectively) and significantly noninferior on mean morphine equivalent dosage (P = 0.011; 55 [36-84] and 74 [49-111] mg, respectively). Postoperative nausea and vomiting and the duration of hospitalization did not differ significantly. Patients given lidocaine had slightly fewer 30-day complications than patients given placebo (odds ratio [95% CI] of 0.91 [0.84-1.00]; P = 0.049). Patients given lidocaine had significantly greater SF-12 physical composite scores than placebo at 1 (38 [31-47] vs. 33 [27-42]; P = 0.002) and 3 (39 [31-49] vs. 34 [28-44]; P = 0.04) months, postoperatively.

IV lidocaine significantly improves postoperative pain after complex spine surgery.

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Available from: Jinbo Liu, Nov 19, 2015
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    • "On the other hand, there are opposing views on the maximum allowed time for lidocaine infusion and a final agreement is still to be reached.[2526] Recently, more investigations have been done on the perioperative use of lidocaine, which have shown positive effects in terms of better pain control and functional recovery and less opioid consumption.[2728293031] "
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    ABSTRACT: Opiate is used in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pumps (PCIA) for controlling pain in post-surgical patients. Other drugs are remarkably added to opioid pumps to enhance quality, lengthen analgesia, and reduce side effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic which inhibits sodium channels, has anesthetic and analgesic effects when injected locally or intravenously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding lidocaine 1% to different doses of morphine via IV pump to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after orthopedic surgeries. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery of lower extremities were divided into three equal groups to control postoperative pain. Intravenous pump with 5 ml/h flow rate was used as the analgesic method. The solution consisted of lidocaine 1% plus 20 mg morphine for the first group, lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine for the second group, and only 20 mg morphine for the third group (control group). Patients were checked every 12 h, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS), extra opioid doses, nausea/vomiting, and sedation scale were examined. Pain score was lower in the first group compared to the other two groups. Mean VAS was 2.15 ± 0.2, 2.75 ± 0.2, and 2 ± 0.25 on the first day and 1.88 ± 0.1, 2.74 ± 0.3, and 2.40 ± 0.3 on the second day, respectively, in the three groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Also, 10% of patients in the first group needed extra opioid doses, while this figure was 30% in the second group and 25% in the third group (P < 0.01). Nausea/vomiting and sedation scores were not statistically different among the three groups. Compared to lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine or 20 mg morphine alone in PCIA, adding lidocaine 1% to 20 mg morphine decreases the pain score and opioid dose after orthopedic surgeries without having side effects.
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