Accumulating evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are safe and effective to reduce glycemia in diabetic patients without producing significant cardiovascular risks. Most of these studies have been carried out specifically restricting carbohydrates, which tends to lead to increased protein intake, thus reducing the ketosis. However, diets that limit protein as well as carbohydrates, entailing a composition very high in fat, appear even more effective to reduce glucose and whole-body glucose metabolism in humans. In animal models, low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets do not produce ketosis or reduce glycemia but rather cause obesity. However, limiting both protein and carbohydrates as in a classic ketogenic diet remarkably reduces blood glucose in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and reverses diabetic nephropathy. Future studies should assess if ketogenic diets would be effective to reverse diabetic complications in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is reaching worldwide proportions. In addition to causing obesity, HFDs also induce a variety of health disorders, which includes cognitive decline. Hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of HFD, and it is suspected that 'primed' neuroinflammatory processes may mediate this response. To examine the link between diet, hippocampal function and neuroinflammation, male Wistar rats were fed a medium or HFD. Hippocampal memory function was measured using contextual pre-exposure fear conditioning (CPE-FC). Rats fed a HFD demonstrated impaired memory, an effect that was augmented with longer duration of HFD consumption. HFD-induced memory impairments were linked to potentiated levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) protein in the hippocampus 2 h after the foot-shock that occurs during CPE-FC. Central IL-1 receptor antagonism, with intracisterna magna (ICM) administration of hIL-1RA prior to the foot-shock prevented the diet-induced memory disruption, suggesting a critical role for IL-1β in this phenomenon. Additionally, obese animals whose diet regimen was reversed from HFD back to standard chow recovered memory function and did not demonstrate a foot-shock-induced hippocampal IL-1β increase. Interestingly, dietary reversal neutralized the negative impact of HFD on memory and IL-1β, yet animals maintained physiological evidence of obesity (increased body mass and serum leptin), indicating that dietary components, not body mass, may mediate the negative effects on memory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) is a convenient carrier of energy from adipocytes to peripheral tissues during fasting or exercise. However, βOHB is more than just a metabolite, having important cellular signaling roles as well. βOHB is an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a ligand for at least two cell surface receptors. In addition, the downstream products of βOHB metabolism including acetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) themselves have signaling activities. These regulatory functions of βOHB serve to link the outside environment to cellular function and gene expression, and have important implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 08/2014; 106(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.08.009 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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