Article

Changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution in invasive disease and nasopharyngeal carriage after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Bogotá, Colombia

Grupo de Microbiología Instituto Nacional de Salud Bogota Colombia.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 05/2013; 31(37). DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.074
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In Bogotá, the Heptavalent Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into childhood immunization schedule since 2009. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serotype distribution and penicillin susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from nasopharyngeal samples and invasive disease among children living in Bogotá, before and after PCV7 introduction. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy children aged between 12 and 18 months of age before (years 2005-2006) and after (2011) PCV7 introduction. Identification of S. pneumoniae was performed by multiplex PCR. Serotype was determined by PCR and Quellung reaction. Susceptibility to penicillin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin was evaluated. In addition, distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility before and after vaccine introduction among invasive isolates recovered from children ≤2 years old living in Bogotá was analyzed. RESULTS: Prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage declined from 55.7% (137/246) in unvaccinated to 44.2% (87/197) (p=0.01) in vaccinated children. The proportion of children carrying PCV7 serotypes decreased from 23.6% (58/246) to 7.6% (15/197) (p<0.001). The decrease was counterbalanced by an increase in the proportion of non-PCV7 serotypes. The most prevalent among emerging serotypes were 15A, 15B, 15C, 11A and 35B. Among IPD isolates, PCV7 serotypes decreased from 69.1% (235/340) in 2005/2009 to 38.0% (32/84) in 2010/2011 (p<0.001). The increase of non-PCV7 serotypes was significant. Resistance to penicillin among invasive isolates recovered from meningitis decreased from 41.1% (30/73) in the pre-vaccine period to 14.2% (2/14) in post-vaccine period (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in the prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage following the introduction of PCV7 vaccine, have been overshadowed by an important surge in the prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes. Systematic surveillance combining nasopharyngeal carriage surveys and IPD detection could help in evaluating the impact of conjugate vaccines.

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