Evaluation of early cerebral metabolic, perfusion and microstructural changes in HCV-positive patients: A pilot study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate early metabolic, perfusion and microstructural cerebral changes in patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and normal appearing brain on plain MR using advanced MR techniques, as well as to assess correlations of MR measurements with the liver histology activity index (HAI). METHODS: Fifteen HCV-positive patients and 18 control subjects underwent single voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using a 1.5T MR unit. MRS metabolite ratios (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr) were calculated. PWI values of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were assessed from 8 areas including several cortical locations, basal ganglia and fronto-parietal white matter. DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained from 14 white matter tracts. RESULTS: Compared to controls, HCV-positive patients showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower NAA/Cr ratios within frontal and parietal white matters, lower rCBV values within frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, decreased FA values, as well as increased ADC values in several white matter tracts. We also found elevated rCBV values in basal ganglia regions. The increase in mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio was correlated with a higher HAI score. CONCLUSIONS: The results of advanced MR techniques indicate neurotoxicity of HCV reflected by neuronal impairment within white matter, cortical hypoperfusion and disintegrity within several white matter tracts. Hyperperfusion in basal ganglia may be an indicator of brain inflammation in HCV patients. Our findings may suggest a biologic link between HCV-related liver disease and cerebral dysfunction.
SourceAvailable from: Anna Zimny[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyse MR images of the brain, including advanced MR techniques, such as single voxel spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in children with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) before and after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to establish the imaging criteria which may be helpful in the assessment of disease staging, qualification to HSCT and follow-up. Seven boys, aged 5-10 years, (mean 8.14 years) with biochemically proved X-ALD, underwent plain MR imaging with a 1.5 T unit before and after HSCT. Structural images were analyzed using an MRI severity scale (Loes scale). In one patient the follow-up examinations included MRS with the assessment of metabolite ratios (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr), as well as DTI with evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in several white matter tracts. Two boys had an MRI severity score before HSCT equal to <8 points, and after HSCT they showed no clinical or radiological progression. In 5 patients with a higher severity score (from 8 to 16 points, mean 10.9) before HSCT, clinical and radiological progression was observed (MRI severity score from 17 to 25 points, mean 20.9). Follow-up advanced MRI techniques in one boy showed metabolic alterations, as well as decreased FA and ADC values in all evaluated areas. Children at an early stage of X-ALD (below 8 points in MRI severity scale) are more likely to benefit from HSCT. DTI and MRS seem to be more useful imaging methods to assess the progression of X-ALD.Polish Journal of Radiology 01/2015; 80:181-90. DOI:10.12659/PJR.893285
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ABSTRACT: patients with different etiologies are unclear. It is also unknown how the metabolic alterations of advanced liver diseases interact with the HCV-induced cognitive dysfunction, and whether these alterations are reversed by antiviral therapies. HCV replication in the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. HCV-related brain dysfunction may be associated with white matter neuronal loss, alterations of association tracts and perfusion. It is unclear to what extent, in patients with cirrhosis, HCV triggers an irreversible neurodegenerative brain damage. New insights on this issue will be provided by longitudinal studies using the protocols established by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition for cognitive disorders. The domains to be evaluated are complex attention; executive functions; learning and memory; perceptual motor functions; social cognition. These evaluations should be associated with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for major cognitive disorders including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance perfusion, and functional MRI. Also, the characteristics of portal hypertension, including the extent of liver blood flow and the type of portal shunts, should be evaluated. Key words: Cognitive impairment; Neuropsychological tests; Magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy; Magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy; Hepatitis C virus infection05/2015; 7(7):922-925. DOI:10.4254/wjh.v7.i7.922
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ABSTRACT: This study examined neurologic abnormalities (as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and diffusion tensor imaging), neurocognitive performance, and fatigue among a sample of adults with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We hypothesized that HCV+ individuals would demonstrate structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive compromise consistent with frontostriatal dysfunction as well as increased fatigue compared to controls. Participants were 76 individuals diagnosed with HCV and 20 controls who underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation and clinical assessments. A subset of the HCV+ participants (n = 29) and all controls underwent MRI. Individuals diagnosed with chronic HCV infection demonstrated greater fractional anisotropy in the striatum as well as greater mean diffusivity in the fronto-occiptal fasciculus and external capsule compared to HCV- controls. HCV+ participants also demonstrated lower levels of N-acetylaspartate in bilateral parietal white matter and elevations in myo-inosital (mI) in bilateral frontal white matter compared to HCV- controls (all p values < 0.05). HCV+ participants also demonstrated significantly poorer neuropsychological performance, particularly in processing speed and verbal fluency. HCV+ patients reported higher levels of fatigue than controls, and fatigue was significantly correlated with diffusivity in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, elevations in mI in frontal white matter, and overall cognitive performance. Our results suggest that HCV-associated neurologic complications disrupt frontostriatal structures, which may result in increased fatigue and poorer cognitive performance, particularly in those cognitive domains regulated by frontostriatal regions.02/2015; 2(1):e59. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000059