Current and Future Therapies for Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1800,USA.New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 05/2013; 368(20):1907-17. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1213651
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ABSTRACT: This report, with a focus on sustainable access to new medicines, reviews policies that affect medicines throughout their lifecycle (from research and development to disinvestment), examining the current evidence base across Europe. While many European countries have not traditionally required active priority-setting for access to medicines, appraising new medicines using pharmacoeconomics is increasingly seen as critical in order to improve efficiency in spending while maintaining an appropriate balance between access and cost–effectiveness. The study features findings from 27 countries and explores different ways that health authorities in European countries are dealing with high spending on new medicines, including methods such as restrictive treatment guidelines, target levels for use of generics, and limitations on the use of particularly expensive drugs. It also outlines possible policy directions and choices that may help governments to reduce high prices when introducing new drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Great progress has been made in understanding the HCV genome and its molecular virology. This understanding has culminated in the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents targeting HCV viral proteins. Telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC) were the first DAAs introduced for treatment of genotype 1 HCV in 2011; when used in combination with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV), these protease inhibitors improved efficacy in patients with chronic HCV infection compared to the traditional dual therapy. However, this combination was associated with adverse events that often led to early termination of therapy. In late 2013, the FDA approved a second wave of DAAs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and simeprevir (SMV). The use of SOF with SMV opened the door for IFN-free combination regimens. This combination was highly efficacious and well tolerated in patients with HCV genotype 1. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (LDV) fixed-dose oral combination (FDC) therapy, and paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir ± RBV were recently approved, elevating sustained virologic response (SVR) rates to over 95 %. We are anticipating the approval of additional IFN-free regimens with comparable efficacy and tolerability but with the addition of pangenotypic coverage, fewer drug-drug interactions, and a high barrier to resistance. This review will summarize current management for chronic HCV infection.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11904-014-0243-7
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