Article

Does Cancer Start in the Womb? Altered Mammary Gland Development and Predisposition to Breast Cancer due to in Utero Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA, USA.
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia (Impact Factor: 7.52). 05/2013; DOI: 10.1007/s10911-013-9293-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary development and tumorigenesis in rodents is used as a paradigmatic example of how altered prenatal mammary development may lead to breast cancer in humans who are also widely exposed to it through plastic goods, food and drink packaging, and thermal paper receipts. Changes in the stroma and its extracellular matrix led to altered ductal morphogenesis. Additionally, gestational and lactational exposure to BPA increased the sensitivity of rats and mice to mammotropic hormones during puberty and beyond, thus suggesting a plausible explanation for the increased incidence of breast cancer.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
138 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Studies have identified multi-potent stem cells in the adult mammary gland. More recent studies have suggested that the embryonic mammary gland may also contain stem/progenitor cells that contribute to initial ductal development. We were interested in determining whether embryonic cells might also directly contribute to long-lived stem cells that support homeostasis and development in the adult mammary gland. Methods We used DNA-label retention to detect long label-retaining cells in the mammary gland. Mouse embryos were labeled with 5-ethynl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) between embryonic day 14.5 and embryonic day 18.5 and were subsequently sacrificed and examined for EdU retention at various intervals after birth. EdU retaining cells were co-stained for various lineage markers and identified after fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of specific epithelial subsets. EdU-labeled mice were subjected to subsequent 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine administration to determine whether EdU-labeled cells could re-enter the cell cycle. Finally, EdU-labeled cells were grown under non-adherent conditions to assess their ability to form mammospheres. Results We demonstrate embryonically-derived, long label-retaining cells (eLLRCs) in the adult mammary gland. eLLRCs stain for basal markers and are enriched within the mammary stem cell population identified by cell sorting. eLLRCs are restricted to the primary ducts near the nipple region. Interestingly, long label retaining cells (labeled during puberty) are found just in front of the eLLRCs, near where the ends of the ducts had been at the time of DNA labeling in early puberty. A subset of eLLRCs becomes mitotically active during periods of mammary growth and in response to ovarian hormones. Finally, we show that eLLRCs are contained within primary and secondary mammospheres. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a subset of proliferating embryonic cells subsequently becomes quiescent and contributes to the pool of long-lived mammary stem cells in the adult. eLLRCs can re-enter the cell cycle, produce both mammary lineages and self-renew. Thus, our studies have identified a putative stem/progenitor cell population of embryonic origin. Further study of these cells will contribute to an understanding of how quiescent stem cells are generated during development and how fetal exposures may alter future breast cancer risk in adults.
    Breast Cancer Research 12/2014; · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: According to contemporary epidemiological and experimental evidence, we propose a novel classification of cancers based on pathogenesis instead of classifications based on histological appearance of cancer. This new scheme first defines cancers as either 1. inborn errors of development or 2. sporadic ones, and then sub-defines the former into 1A. inborn inherited errors of development, being those due to mutations contributed by one or both parents' gametes to the developing conceptus, and 1B. inborn induced errors of development when the malformations and/or cancers are due to environmental carcinogenic exposure during pregnancy. It is anticipated that the origin of an increasing number of so-called sporadic cancers will turn out to be linked to the inborn induced errors of development group.
    Cancer Cell International 12/2014; 14(1):113. · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
17 Downloads
Available from
Sep 14, 2014