Vascular lesions of bone in children, adolescents, and young adults. A clinicopathologic reappraisal and application of the ISSVA classification.
ABSTRACT Vascular lesions of bone are rare and their terminology is not standardized. Herein, we report 77 patients with such lesions in order to characterize their morphologic spectrum and the applicability of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. In this system, malformations are structural anomalies distinguishable from tumors, which are proliferative. The radiologic images/reports and pathologic materials from all patients were reviewed. All lesions were either restricted to bone or had minimal contiguous soft tissue involvement with the exception of some multifocal lymphatic lesions that extensively affected soft tissue and/or viscera. We found that certain lesions of bone often regarded as tumors should be classified as malformations. Malformations (n = 46) were more common than tumors (n = 31); lymphatic and venous malformations were equally frequent. In the tumor category, hemangioendothelioma and epithelioid hemangioma were the most common. We also describe new vascular entities that arise in or involve bone. Utilizing the ISSVA approach, the diverse and often contradictory terminology of vascular lesions of bone can be largely eliminated. Standardized nomenclature is critical for scientific communication and patient management, and we hereby recommend the ISSVA classification be applied to vascular lesions of bone, just as for skin, soft tissue, and viscera.
- Advances in Dermatology 01/1997; 13:375-423.
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ABSTRACT: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare, massively osteolytic condition which is associated with increased vascularity and an increase in osteoclast numbers. To determine the cellular and humoral mechanisms underlying the increase in osteoclast numbers and osteolysis in GSD, this study analysed circulating osteoclast precursor numbers and sensitivity to osteoclastogenic factors in a GSD patient and age/sex-matched controls. Monocytes were cultured with M-CSF (25 ng/ml) and RANKL (30 ng/ml) and osteoclast formation was assessed in terms of the formation of TRAP(+) and VNR(+) multinucleated cells and the extent of lacunar resorption. There was no increase in the proportion of circulating osteoclast precursors in GSD relative to controls, but lacunar resorption was consistently greater in GSD monocyte cultures. Increased osteoclast formation in GSD was noted when monocytes were incubated with IL-1beta (1 ng/ml), IL-6/sIL-6R (100 ng/ml), and TNFalpha (10 ng/ml). An increase in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption was also noted in control monocyte cultures in the presence of GSD serum. These results indicate that the increase in osteoclast formation in GSD is due not to an increase in the number of circulating osteoclast precursors, but rather to an increase in the sensitivity of these precursors to humoral factors which promote osteoclast formation and bone resorption.The Journal of Pathology 01/2002; 195(5):624-30. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Though cranial hemangiomas are second only to vertebral hemangiomas in frequency, such lesions are rarely congenital and multiple. It is probable that the true incidence of congenital calvarial hemangiomas is higher than that reported in the literature, as they are unlikely to undergo imaging, most being asymptomatic and without a significant soft tissue component. We present a case of multiple congenital calvarial and skull base cavernous-type hemangiomas, diagnosed in a 4-day-old female, involving the right zygoma, maxilla, frontal and petrous temporal bones and contralateral squamous temporal bone. Surgical biopsy confirmed the radiological diagnosis as well as the concomitant multiple subcutaneous capillary-type hemangiomas which were identified clinically. No specific clinical syndrome or chromosomal abnormality was identified and the underlying cerebral parenchyma was normal with no intra-axial involvement. With conservative treatment, two lesions completely resolved and a further two lesions subsequently decreased in both size and degree of enhancement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple congenital hemangiomas involving the calvarium and skull base. Despite this, the radiological features, combined with the clinical findings of multiple capillary hemangiomas, were characteristic enough to permit an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Osseous hemangiomas should feature prominently in any differential diagnosis of multiple hypervascular lesions, as they are common, more so when limited to an anatomical region, irrespective of site or age.Skeletal Radiology 09/2005; 34(8):485-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
Steven J Fishman