The association between socioeconomic status and osteoporotic fracture in population-based adults: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Although socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely related to most diseases, this systematic review showed a paucity of good quality data examining influences of SES on osteoporotic fracture to confirm this relationship. Further research is required to elucidate the issue and any underlying mechanisms as a necessary precursor to considering intervention implications.
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and musculoskeletal disease is little understood, despite there being an inverse relationship between SES and most causes of morbidity. We evaluated evidence of SES as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture in population-based adults.
Computer-aided search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO from January 1966 until November 2007 was conducted. Identified studies investigated the relationship between SES parameters of income, education, occupation, type of residence and marital status, and occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results.
Eleven studies were identified for inclusion, which suggested a lack of literature in the field. Best evidence analysis identified strong evidence for an association between being married/living with someone and reduced risk of osteoporotic fracture. Limited evidence exists of the relationship between occupation type or employment status and fracture, or for type of residence and fracture. Conflicting evidence exists for the relationship between osteoporotic fracture and level of income and education.
Limited good quality evidence exists of the role SES might play in osteoporotic fracture. Further research is required to identify whether a relationship exists, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms, as a necessary precursor to considering intervention implications.
- SourceAvailable from: Hermizi HapidinSains Malaysiana 08/2013; 42(8):1191-1200. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between bone speed of sound (SOS) and body composition, osteoporosis-related health behaviours, and socioeconomic status (SES) in adolescent females. A total of 442 adolescent females in grades 9-11 participated. Anthropometric measures of height, body mass, and percent body fat were taken, and osteo-protective behaviours such as oral contraceptive use (OC), physical activity and daily calcium intake were evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Bone SOS was measured by transaxial quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the distal radius and mid-tibia. The results suggest that fat mass is a significant negative predictor of tibial SOS, while lean mass is positively associated with radial SOS scores and calcium intake was positively associated with tibial SOS scores (p<O.05). Additionally, users of OC had higher radial SOS. No significant correlation was found between physical activity and bone SOS. Therefore bone strength measured by QUS is reduced in adolescents with an increased fat mass, and influenced positively by OC use, calcium intake and lean mass.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we document the effects of low-frequency active feedback on the 1/f phase modulation (PM) noise of linear and compressed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) and Si bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers operating at 1GHz. Low noise, high frequency transistors manufactured by NEC were used in a common-emitter (CE) configuration and powered with DC batteries to ensure low supply noise. The feedback path consisted of a low noise operational amplifier, the LT1028, connected as a voltage referenced difference amplifier. In general, the measured reduction in the baseband collector voltage noise with active feedback agreed with the theoretical values. While the PM noise of the amplifiers was reduced when using active feedback, the reduction was lower than expected, therefore other factors must contribute to the amplifiers' PM noise. The lowest PM noise achieved was L(10 Hz) ≈ -144 dBc/Hz for the Si BJT amplifier operating in 4dB compression and L(10 Hz) ≈ -139 dBc/Hz for the SiGe HBT amplifier operating in 4dB compression. These represent reductions of approximately 12 dB and 9 dB from the respective open loop configurations.Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition, 2004. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International; 09/2004