Adenoviral vectors for improved gene delivery to the inner ear.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
Hearing research (Impact Factor: 2.85). 02/2009; 248(1-2):31-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.heares.2008.11.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An important requirement for gene therapy in the inner ear is to achieve efficient gene delivery without damaging residual inner ear function. This can be achieved by delivering a high concentration of vector in a minimal volume. Adenovectors are well suited to meet these requirements since high quality concentrated vector with a high capacity for a gene payload can be produced. To reduce the number of vector particles and volume of delivery to the inner ear, we tested vectors with enhancements in cell binding and cell entry properties. We compared delivery of a marker gene to the inner ear using two different advanced generation serotype 5 adenovector designs. The first adenovector tested, AdRGD, has a restricted tropism of entry into cells. AdRGD is an Ad5 capsid vector with an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif built into the adenovector fiber that has also been modified to abolish the fiber-CAR and penton-integrin interactions that provide the normal well characterized two-step entry pathway for adenovirus. The AdRGD vector has enhanced binding to alphanu integrins. The second vector, AdF2K, contains 7 lysine residues within the fiber knob and has been shown to have expanded tropism for cells in vitro and in vivo. AdF2K maintains its normal CAR and integrin receptors interactions and has an additional mechanism of entry via its ability to interact with heparan sulfate. Both vectors demonstrated effective delivery to the inner ear and more uniform labeling of the inner ear sensory epithelia than native capsid vector, when tested in vivo. Analysis of expression efficiency using quantitative PCR was tested in vitro on cultured macular organs and demonstrated that vector delivery with the AdF2K vector design yielded optimal delivery. The present study demonstrates that retargeting strategies can improve delivery to the inner ear.

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    ABSTRACT: Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives/HypothesisDetermine the optimal design characteristics of an adenoviral (Ad) vector to deliver atoh1 and induce regeneration of vestibular hair cells. Study DesignEvaluation of a mouse model of intralabyrinthine gene delivery. Tissue culture of mouse and human macular organs. Methods Macular organs from adult C57Bl/6 mice were treated with binding modified and alternate adenovectors expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) or luciferase (L). Expression of marker genes was determined over time to determine vector transfection efficiency. The inner ear of adult mice was then injected with modified vectors. Expression of gfp and distribution of vector DNA was followed. Hearing and balance function was evaluated in normal animals to ensure safety of the novel vector designs. An optimized vector was identified and tested for its ability to induce hair cell regeneration in a mouse vestibulopathy model. Finally, this vector was tested for its ability to induce hair cell regeneration in human tissue. ResultsAd5 serotype-based vectors were identified as having a variety of different binding capacities for inner ear tissue. This makes it difficult to limit the dose of vector due to entry into nontargeted cells. Screening of rare adenovector serotypes demonstrated that Ad-based vectors were ideally suited for delivery to supporting cells; therefore, they were useful for hair cell regeneration studies. Utilization of an Ad28-based vector to deliver atoh1 to a mouse model of vestibular loss resulted in significant functional recovery of balance. This vector was also capable of transfecting human macular organs and inducing regeneration of human vestibular hair cells in vitro. Conclusions Improvement in vector design can lead to more specific cell-based delivery and reduction of nonspecific delivery of the trans gene, leading to the development of optimized molecular therapeutics to induce hair cell regeneration. Level of EvidenceN/A. Laryngoscope 124:S1-S12, 2014
    The Laryngoscope 10/2014; 124(S5). DOI:10.1002/lary.24775 · 2.03 Impact Factor


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