DDPH ameliorated oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in rat hippocampal neurons via interrupting Ca2+ overload and glutamate release.
ABSTRACT Our previous work has demonstrated that DDPH (1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride), a competitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, could improve cognitive deficits, reduce histopathological damage and facilitate synaptic plasticity in vivo possibly via increasing NR2B (NMDA receptor 2B) expression and antioxidation of DDPH itself. The present study further evaluated effects of DDPH on OGD (Oxygen and glucose deprivation)-induced neuronal damage in rat primary hippocampal cells. The addition of DDPH to the cultured cells 12 h before OGD for 4 h significantly reduced neuronal damage as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release experiments. The effects of DDPH on intracellular calcium concentration were explored by Fura-2 based calcium imaging techniques and results showed that DDPH at the dosages of 5 microM and 10 microM suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) stimulated by 50 mM KCl in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions. However, DDPH couldn't suppress the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by both 50 microM glutamate in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions and 20 microM ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in Ca(2+)-free solution. These results indicated that DDPH prevented [Ca(2+)](i) overload in hippocampal neurons by blocking Ca(2+) influx (voltage-dependent calcium channel) but not Ca(2+) mobilization from the intracellular Ca(2+) store in endoplasm reticulum (ER). We also demonstrated that DDPH could decrease glutamate release when hippocampal cells were subjected to OGD. These observations demonstrated that DDPH protected hippocampal neurons against OGD-induced damage by preventing the Ca(2+) influx and decreasing glutamate release.
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Animal modeling of ischemic stroke serves as an indispensable tool first to investigate mechanisms of ischemic cerebral injury, secondly to develop novel antiischemic regimens. Most of the stroke models are carried on rodents. Each model has its particular strengths and weaknesses. Mimicking all aspects of human stroke in one animal model is not possible since ischemic stroke is itself a very heterogeneous disorder. Experimental ischemic stroke models contribute to our understanding of the events occurring in ischemic and reperfused brain. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. Trials aimed to evaluate effectiveness of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in longer time windows with finer selection of patients based on magnetic resonance imaging tools and trials of novel recanalization methods are ongoing. Despite the failure of most neuroprotective drugs during the last two decades, there are good chances to soon have effective neuroprotectives with the help of improved preclinical testing and clinical trial design. In this article, we focus on various rodent animal models, pathogenic mechanisms, and promising therapeutic approaches of ischemic stroke.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 06/2007; 87(1):179-97. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, resulting in energy failure that initiates a complex series of metabolic events, ultimately causing neuronal death. One such critical metabolic event is the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), resulting in hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids and release of free fatty acids including arachidonic acid, a metabolic precursor for important cell-signaling eicosanoids. PLA2 enzymes have been classified as calcium-dependent cytosolic (cPLA2) and secretory (sPLA2) and calcium-independent (iPLA2) forms. Cardiolipin hydrolysis by mitochondrial sPLA2 disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid also generates ROS. These two processes contribute to formation of lipid peroxides, which degrade to reactive aldehyde products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and acrolein) that covalently bind to proteins/nucleic acids, altering their function and causing cellular damage. Activation of PLA2 in cerebral ischemia has been shown while other studies have separately demonstrated increased lipid peroxidation. To the best of our knowledge no study has directly shown the role of PLA2 in lipid peroxidation in cerebral ischemia. To date, there are very limited data on PLA2 protein by Western blotting after cerebral ischemia, though some immunohistochemical studies (for cPLA2 and sPLA2) have been reported. Dissecting the contribution of PLA2 to lipid peroxidation in cerebral ischemia is challenging due to multiple forms of PLA2, cardiolipin hydrolysis, diverse sources of ROS arising from arachidonic acid metabolism, catecholamine autoxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, activated neutrophils coupled with NADPH oxidase activity, and lack of specific inhibitors. Although increased activity and expression of various PLA2 isoforms have been demonstrated in stroke, more studies are needed to clarify the cellular origin and localization of these isoforms in the brain, their responses in cerebral ischemic injury, and their role in oxidative stress.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 03/2006; 40(3):376-87. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates the existence of a putative novel phosphatidylinositol-linked D1 dopamine receptor in brain that mediates phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis via activation of phospholipase Cbeta. The present work was designed to characterize the Ca(2+) signals regulated by this phosphatidylinositol-linked D(1) dopamine receptor in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. The results indicated that stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-linked D1 dopamine receptor by its newly identified selective agonist SKF83959 induced a long-lasting increase in basal [Ca(2+)](i) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Stimulation was observable at 0.1 microm and reached the maximal effect at 30 microm. The [Ca(2+)](i) increase induced by 1 microm SKF83959 reached a plateau in 5 +/- 2.13 min, an average 96 +/- 5.6% increase over control. The sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) was due to both intracellular calcium release and calcium influx. The initial component of Ca(2+) increase through release from intracellular stores was necessary for triggering the late component of Ca(2+) rise through influx. We further demonstrated that activation of phospholipase Cbeta/inositol triphosphate was responsible for SKF83959-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Moreover, inhibition of voltage-operated calcium channel or NMDA receptor-gated calcium channel strongly attenuated SKF83959-induced Ca(2+) influx, indicating that both voltage-operated calcium channel and NMDA receptor contribute to phosphatidylinositol-linked D(1) receptor regulation of [Ca(2+)](i).Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2006; 98(4):1316-23. · 3.97 Impact Factor