Platelet turnover, coagulation factors, and soluble markers of platelet and endothelial activation in essential thrombocythemia: relationship with thrombosis occurrence and JAK2 V617F allele burden.
ABSTRACT Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) have an increased frequency of thrombosis, but the relationship of both thrombosis and JAK2 V617F allele burden with platelet turnover, acquired activated protein C resistance (aAPCR), and levels of coagulation factors and soluble markers of platelet, and endothelial activation is not well known. In 53 ET patients (26 with a history of thrombosis), reticulated platelets (RP) percentage, aAPCR, platelet tissue factor (TF) expression, and plasma levels of TF, coagulation factors, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were compared with those in matched healthy individuals and correlated with thrombosis occurrence and JAK2 mutational load. ET patients with thrombosis had significantly higher values for RP percentage, aAPCR, and levels of factors V and VIII, VWF:Ag, sP-selectin, and sCD40L than patients without thrombosis and controls. At multivariate study, RP percentage, factor V levels, and aAPCR were independently associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Patients with JAK2 mutation had significantly lower levels of free protein S (PS) and higher levels of TF, sP-selectin, sCD40L, VWF:Ag, and sTM than those with wild-type allele. A mutant allele dosage effect (>or= 12%) was observed for TF, sP-selectin, sCD40L, VWF:Ag, and PS levels. These results support a role for platelet turnover, factor V, and aAPCR in the thrombosis of ET as well as the association between JAK2 V617F allele burden and either decreased free PS or increased TF and soluble markers of platelet and endothelial activation.
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Article: Mechanisms of thrombus formation.New England Journal of Medicine 09/2008; 359(9):938-49. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a form of posttransfusion acute pulmonary insufficiency that has been linked to the infusion of biologic response modifiers (BRMs), including antileukocyte antibodies and lipids. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a platelet-derived proinflammatory mediator that accumulates during platelet storage. We hypothesized that human polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) express CD40, CD40 ligation rapidly primes PMNs, and sCD40L induces PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Levels of sCD40L were measured in blood components and in platelet concentrates (PCs) implicated in TRALI or control PCs that did not elicit a transfusion reaction. All blood components contained higher levels of sCD40L than fresh plasma, with apheresis PCs evidencing the highest concentration of sCD40L followed by PCs from whole blood, whole blood, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs). PCs implicated in TRALI reactions contained significantly higher sCD40L levels than control PCs. PMNs express functional CD40 on the plasma membrane, and recombinant sCD40L (10 ng/mL-1 mug/mL) rapidly (5 minutes) primed the PMN oxidase. Soluble CD40L promoted PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of HMVECs as the second event in a 2-event in vitro model of TRALI. We concluded that sCD40L, which accumulates during blood component storage, has the capacity to activate adherent PMNs, causing endothelial damage and possibly TRALI in predisposed patients.Blood 11/2006; 108(7):2455-62. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD40 is a 48-kDa phosphorylated transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF receptor superfamily. CD40 has been demonstrated on a range of cell types, and it has an important role in adaptive immunity and inflammation. CD40 has recently been described on platelets but platelet activation by CD40 has not been described. In the present study, we use flow cytometry and immunoblotting to confirm that platelets constitutively express surface CD40. CD40 mRNA was undetectable, suggesting that the protein is synthesized early in platelet differentiation by megakaryocytes. Ligation of platelet CD40 with recombinant soluble CD40L trimer (sCD40LT) caused increased platelet CD62P expression, alpha-granule and dense granule release, and the classical morphological changes associated with platelet activation. CD40 ligation also caused beta3 integrin activation, although this was not accompanied by platelet aggregation. These actions were abrogated by the CD40L blocking antibody TRAP-1 and the CD40 blocking antibodies M2 and M3, showing that activation was mediated by CD40L binding to platelet CD40. beta3 integrin blockade with eptifibatide had no effect, indicating that outside-in signaling via alphaIIbbeta3 was not contributing to these CD40-mediated effects. CD40 ligation led to enhanced platelet-leukocyte adhesion, which is important in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of thrombosis or inflammation. Our results support a role for CD40-mediated platelet activation in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.Circulation Research 06/2003; 92(9):1041-8. · 11.86 Impact Factor