The extreme capsule in humans and rethinking of the language circuitry.
ABSTRACT Experimental and imaging studies in monkeys have outlined various long association fiber pathways within the fronto-temporo-parietal region. In the present study, the trajectory of the extreme capsule (EmC) fibers has been delineated in five human subjects using DT-MRI tractography. The EmC seems to be a long association fiber pathway, which courses between the inferior frontal region and the superior temporal gyrus extending into the inferior parietal lobule. Comparison of EmC fibers with the adjacent association fiber pathway, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF), in the same subjects reveals that EmC is located in a medial and rostral position relative to MdLF flanking in part the medial wall of the insula. The EmC can also be differentiated from other neighboring fiber pathways such as the external capsule, uncinate fascicle, arcuate fascicle, superior longitudinal fascicles II and III, and the inferior longitudinal fascicle. Given the location of EmC within the language zone, specifically Broca's area in the frontal lobe, and Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobule, it is suggested that the extreme capsule could have a role in language function.
Article: The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Music-supported therapy (MST) has been developed recently to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. MST uses musical instruments, an electronic piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. In this paper, we first describe the rationale underlying MST, and we review the previous studies conducted on acute and chronic stroke patients using this new neurorehabilitation approach. Second, we address the neural mechanisms involved in the motor movement improvements observed in acute and chronic stroke patients. Third, we provide some recent studies on the involvement of auditory-motor coupling in the MST in chronic stroke patients using functional neuroimaging. Finally, these ideas are discussed and focused on understanding the dynamics involved in the neural circuit underlying audio-motor coupling and how functional connectivity could help to explain the neuroplastic changes observed after therapy in stroke patients.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 1252:282-93. · 3.15 Impact Factor