Infiltration of CD4+ lymphocytes into the brain contributes to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson disease.

INSERM, UMR S679, Experimental Neurology and Therapeutics, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 01/2009; 119(1):182-92. DOI: 10.1172/JCI36470
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of dopamine-containing neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that dopaminergic cell death is influenced by the innate immune system. However, the pathogenic role of the adaptive immune system in PD remains enigmatic. Here we showed that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells but not B cells had invaded the brain in both postmortem human PD specimens and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD during the course of neuronal degeneration. We further demonstrated that MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell death was markedly attenuated in the absence of mature T lymphocytes in 2 different immunodeficient mouse strains (Rag1-/- and Tcrb-/- mice). Importantly, similar attenuation of MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell death was seen in mice lacking CD4 as well as in Rag1-/- mice reconstituted with FasL-deficient splenocytes. However, mice lacking CD8 and Rag1-/- mice reconstituted with IFN-gamma-deficient splenocytes were not protected. These data indicate that T cell-mediated dopaminergic toxicity is almost exclusively arbitrated by CD4+ T cells and requires the expression of FasL but not IFNgamma. Further, our data may provide a rationale for targeting the adaptive arm of the immune system as a therapeutic strategy in PD.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of the ventral midbrain is orchestrated by a number of cell-extrinsic and -intrinsic factors that control critical processes, such as the patterning of the neural tube along the main body axis and the specification of diverse neuronal cell types in distinct positions of the neural tube. Subsequently, the regulation of neurogenesis and survival— acquire particular relevance in order to define the final size of diverse neuronal populations. In a series of studies during the last few years, we have identified liver X receptors (LXRs) as critical regulators of ventral midbrain development. Moreover, specific cholesterol derivatives present in the midbrain or in the cerebrospinal fluid were identified as LXR ligands, capable of specifically and selectively regulating neurogenesis and the survival of distinct neuronal populations, including midbrain dopamine neurons. These studies have shown that cholesterol derivatives are an entirely new class of factors capable of regulating both neuronal survival and neurogenesis, thus providing a direct link between cholesterol metabolism and brain development. In addition, LXRs and cholesterol metabolism were found to play a critical role in regulating the balance between neuronal survival and death in diverse midbrain neuronal populations. In this review, we will focus on these two aspects and on the possible role of cholesterol metabolism and LXRs in neurodegeneration.
    04/2015; 7. DOI:10.12703/P7-37
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The protein α-synuclein (α-Syn) has a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and immunotherapeutic approaches targeting this molecule have shown promising results. In this study, novel antibodies were generated against specific peptides from full length human α-Syn and evaluated for effectiveness in ameliorating α-Syn-induced cell death and behavioral deficits in an AAV-α-Syn expressing rat model of PD. Fisher 344 rats were injected with rAAV vector into the right substantia nigra (SN), while control rats received an AAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Beginning one week after injection of the AAV-α-Syn vectors, rats were treated intraperitoneally with either control IgG or antibodies against the N-terminal (AB1), or central region (AB2) of α-Syn. An unbiased stereological estimation of TH+, NeuN+, and OX6 (MHC-II) immunostaining revealed that the α-Syn peptide antibodies (AB1 and AB2) significantly inhibited α-Syn-induced dopaminergic cell (DA) and NeuN+ cell loss (one-way ANOVA (F (3, 30) = 5.8, p = 0.002 and (F (3, 29) = 7.92, p = 0.002 respectively), as well as decreasing the number of activated microglia in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F = 14.09; p = 0.0003). Antibody treated animals also had lower levels of α-Syn in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F (7, 37) = 9.786; p = 0.0001) and demonstrated a partial intermediate improvement of the behavioral deficits. Our data suggest that, in particular, an α-Syn peptide antibody against the N-terminal region of the protein can protect against DA neuron loss and, to some extent behavioral deficits. As such, these results may be a potential therapeutic strategy for halting the progression of PD.
    PLoS ONE 10(2):e0116841. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116841 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged in tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is thought to contribute to pathogenesis later in the disease course. In AD, BBB dysfunction has been associated with amyloid beta (Aß) pathology, but the role of tau in this process is not well characterized. Since increased BBB permeability is found in tauopathies without Aß pathology, like PSP, we suspected that tau accumulation alone could not only be sufficient, but even more important than Aß for BBB damage. Longitudinal evaluation of brain tissue from the tetracycline-regulatable rTg4510 tau transgenic mouse model showed progressive IgG, T cell and red blood cell infiltration. The Evans blue (EB) dye that is excluded from the brain when the BBB is intact also permeated the brains of rTg4510 mice following peripheral administration, indicative of a bonafide BBB defect, but this was only evident later in life. Thus, despite the marked brain atrophy and inflammation that occurs earlier in this model, BBB integrity is maintained. Interestingly, BBB dysfunction emerged at the same time that perivascular tau emerged around major hippocampal blood vessels. However, when tau expression was suppressed using doxycycline, BBB integrity was preserved, suggesting that the BBB can be stabilized in a tauopathic brain by reducing tau levels. For the first time, these data demonstrate that tau alone can initiate breakdown of the BBB, but the BBB is remarkably resilient, maintaining its integrity in the face of marked brain atrophy, neuroinflammation and toxic tau accumulation. Moreover, the BBB can recover integrity when tau levels are reduced. Thus, late stage interventions targeting tau may slow the vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia that occur in tauopathies.
    01/2015; 3(1):8. DOI:10.1186/s40478-015-0186-2