Multimarker Approach to Evaluate Correlates of Vascular Stiffness The Framingham Heart Study

Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 12/2008; 119(1):37-43. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.816108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Arterial stiffness increases with age and contributes to the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Knowledge about the pathophysiological processes that determine arterial stiffness may help guide therapeutic approaches.
We related 7 circulating biomarkers representing distinct biological pathways (C-reactive protein, aldosterone-to-renin ratio, N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine) to 5 vascular function measures (central pulse pressure, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, mean arterial pressure, forward pressure wave amplitude [all measures of conduit artery stiffness], and augmented pressure, an indicator of wave reflection) in 2000 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age, 61 years; 55% women). Tonometry measures were obtained on average 3 years after the biomarkers were measured. In multivariable linear regression models adjusting for covariates, the biomarker panel was significantly associated with all 5 vascular measures (P<0.003 for all). On backward elimination, the aldosterone-to-renin ratio was positively associated with each stiffness measure (P< or =0.002 for all). In addition, C-reactive protein was positively related to augmented pressure (P=0.0003), whereas plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was positively associated with mean arterial pressure (P=0.003), central pulse pressure (P=0.001), and forward pressure wave (P=0.01).
Our cross-sectional data on a community-based sample suggest a distinctive pattern of positive associations of biomarkers of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation with pan-arterial vascular stiffness, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with central vascular stiffness indices, and C-reactive protein with wave reflection. These observations support the notion of differential influences of biological pathways on vascular stiffness measures.


Available from: Paul Jacques, Jun 02, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial stiffness is an established marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and a potential therapeutic target. While hypertension and aging are established factors contributing to arterial stiffness, the role of inflammation in stiffening of the arteries is less well understood. We summarize existing literature regarding inflammation and arterial stiffness, including a discussion of the potential mechanisms by which inflammation may lead to arterial stiffening and studies assessing: (1) The association between subclinical inflammation and arterial stiffness in the general population; (2) The presence of increased arterial stiffness in primary inflammatory diseases; (3) The effect of anti-inflammatory therapy on arterial stiffness in primary inflammatory disease including the effect of statins; (4) Experimental evidence of immunization-induced arterial stiffening in normal adults. We discuss potential opportunities to assess the impact of anti-inflammatory interventions on arterial stiffness in subjects without primary inflammatory conditions. We also review the effect of inflammation on wave reflections. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Atherosclerosis 09/2014; 237(2):381-390. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.09.011 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are two important members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules, and their potential role as biomarkers of diagnosis, severity and prognosis of cardiovascular disease has been investigated in a number of clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and aortic stiffness in patients referred for echocardiographic examination. Aortic distensibility was determined by echocardiography using systolic and diastolic aortic diameters in 63 consecutive patients referred for echocardiography. Venous samples were collected in the morning after a 12-hour overnight fast, and serum concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were measured using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. Data of a total of 63 participants (mean age 55.6 ± 10.5 years, 31 male) were included in the study. Circulating levels of adhesion molecules were VCAM-1: 12.604 ± 3.904 ng/ml and ICAM-1: 45.417 ± 31.429 ng/ml. We were unable to demonstrate any correlation between indices of aortic stiffness and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. The role of soluble adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease has not been fully established and clinical studies show inconsistent results. Our results indicate that levels of circulating adhesion molecules cannot be used as markers of aortic stiffness in patients.
    03/2015; 26(1):21-4. DOI:10.5830/CVJA-2014-060
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with beneficial influences on cardiovascular health. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and data on the relations of polyunsaturated fatty acids to subclinical disease measures such as vascular stiffness and cardiac function are sparse and inconclusive. In a large community-based cohort, we examined the relations of omega-3 and other fatty acids to a comprehensive panel of vascular function measures (assessing microvascular function and large artery stiffness), cardiac structure and left ventricular function. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition, a measure of long-term fatty acid intake, was assessed in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study and Omni cohorts and related to tonometry-derived measures of vascular stiffness and to a panel of echocardiographic traits using partial correlations. Up to n=3055 individuals (56% women, mean age 66 years) were available for analyses. In age- and sex-adjusted models, higher RBC omega-3 content was moderately associated (p≤0.002) with several measures of vascular stiffness and function in a protective direction. However, after multivariable adjustment, only an association of higher RBC omega-3 content with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of aortic stiffness) remained significant (r = -0.06, p=0.002). In secondary analyses, higher linoleic acid, the major nutritional omega-6 fatty acid, was associated with smaller left atrial size, even after multivariable adjustment (r = -0.064, p<0.001). In conclusion, in our cross-sectional community-based study, we found several associations consistent with the notion of protective effects of omega-3 and linoleic acid. The clinical significance of these modest associations remains to be elucidated. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Vascular Medicine 12/2014; 20(1). DOI:10.1177/1358863X14560808 · 1.73 Impact Factor