Gene expression in human chondrocytes in late osteoarthritis is changed in both fibrillated and intact cartilage without evidence of generalised chondrocyte hypertrophy.
ABSTRACT To investigate changes in gene expression in fibrillated and intact human osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage for evidence of an altered chondrocyte phenotype and hypertrophy.
Paired osteochondral samples were taken from a high-load site and a low-load site from 25 OA joints and were compared with eight similar paired samples from age-matched controls. Gene expression of key matrix and regulatory genes was analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA extracted from the cartilage.
There was a major change in chondrocyte gene expression in OA cartilage. SOX9 (38-fold) and aggrecan (4-fold) gene expression were both lower in OA (p<0.001), and collagen I (17-fold) and II (2.5-fold) gene expression were each increased in a subset of OA samples. The major changes in gene expression were similar at the fibrillated high-loaded site and the intact low-loaded site. There was no evidence of a generalised change in OA to proliferative or hypertrophic phenotype as seen in the growth plate, as genes associated with either stage of differentiation were unchanged (PTHrPR), or significantly downregulated (collagen X (14-fold, p<0.002), VEGF (23-fold, p<0.02), BCL-2 (5.6-fold, p<0.001), matrilin-1 (6.5-fold, p<0.001)). In contrast MMP-13 was significantly upregulated in the OA cartilage samples (5.3-fold, p<0.003).
The expression of key chondrocyte genes, including aggrecan and SOX9, was decreased in OA cartilage and the changes were similar in both fibrillated high-loaded and intact low-loaded cartilage on the same joint. However, there was no significant upregulation of type X collagen, and other genes associated with chondrocyte further differentiation and hypertrophy.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphocitrate (PC) inhibited calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to determine PC targeted genes and the expression of select PC targeted genes in OA menisci to test hypothesis that PC exerts its disease modifying activity in part by reversing abnormal expressions of genes involved in OA. We found that PC downregulated the expression of numerous genes classified in immune response, inflammatory response, and angiogenesis, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb receptor (FCGR3B), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B member 3 (LILRB3). In contrast, PC upregulated the expression of many genes classified in skeletal development, including collagen type II alpha1, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), and SRY- (sex determining region Y-) box 9 (SOX-9). Immunohistochemical examinations revealed higher levels of FCGR3B and LILRB3 and lower level of SOX-9 in OA menisci. These findings indicate that OA is a disease associated with immune system activation and decreased expression of SOX-9 gene in OA menisci. PC exerts its disease modifying activity on OA, at least in part, by targeting immune system activation and the production of extracellular matrix and selecting chondroprotective proteins.BioMed Research International 11/2014; 2014:210469. DOI:10.1155/2014/210469 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In osteoarthritis (OA), the imbalance of chondrocytes¿ anabolic and catabolic factors can induce cartilage destruction. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that is capable of inducing chondrocytes and synovial cells to synthesize MMPs. The hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha, encoded by Epas1) is the catabolic transcription factor in the osteoarthritic process. The purpose of this study is to validate the effects of ecdysteroids (Ecd) on IL-1ß- induced cartilage catabolism and the possible role of Ecd in treatment or prevention of early OA.Methods Chondrocytes and articular cartilage was harvested from newborn ICR mice. Ecd effect on chondrocytes viability was tested and the optimal concentration was determined by MTT assay. The effect of HIF-2¿ (EPAS1) in cartilage catabolism simulated by IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) was evaluated by articular cartilage explants culture. The effects of Ecd on IL-1ß-induced inflammatory conditions and their related catabolic genes expression were analyzed.ResultsInterleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) treatment on primary mouse articular cartilage explants enhanced their Epas1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3, MMP-13) and ADAMTS-5 genes expression and down-regulated collagen type II (Col2a1) gene expression. With the pre-treatment of 10¿8M Ecd, the catabolic effects of IL-1ß on articular cartilage were scavenged.Conclusion In conclusions, Ecd can reduce the IL-1ß-induced inflammatory effect of the cartilage. Ecd may suppress IL-1ß- induced cartilage catabolism via HIF-2¿ pathway.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 15(1):1. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0520-z · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An impact injury model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA) progression was developed using a mechanical insult to an articular cartilage surface to evaluate differential gene expression changes over time and treatment. Porcine patellae with intact cartilage surfaces were randomized to one of three treatments: nonimpacted control, axial impaction (2000 N), or a shear impaction (500 N axial, with tangential displacement to induce shear forces). After impact, the patellae were returned to culture for 0, 3, 7, or 14 days. At the appropriate time point, RNA was extracted from full-thickness cartilage slices at the impact site. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate differential gene expression for 18 OA related genes from four categories: cartilage matrix, degradative enzymes and inhibitors, inflammatory response and signaling, and cell apoptosis. The shear impacted specimens were compared to the axial impacted specimens and showed that shear specimens more highly expressed type I collagen (Col1a1) at the early time points. In addition, there was generally elevated expression of degradative enzymes, inflammatory response genes, and apoptosis markers at the early time points. These changes suggest that the more physiologically relevant shear loading may initially be more damaging to the cartilage and induces more repair efforts after loading.11/2014; 2014:371426. DOI:10.1155/2014/371426