Delirium after cardiac surgery is a risk factor for adverse outcome and even death. Disturbance of motor activity is a core feature of delirium, but hypoactive delirium often remains unrecognized. We explored wrist-actigraphy as a tool to objectively quantify postoperative recovery of 24-h rest-activity patterns to improve the early recognition of delirium after surgery. Motor activity was recorded by wrist-actigraphy after cardiac surgery in 88 patients over 65 years of age. Patients were assessed daily by using the CAM-ICU. Our final analyses were based on 32 non-delirious patients and 38 patients who were delirious on the first day after surgery. The delirious patients showed lower mean activity levels during the first postoperative night (P<0.05), reduced restlessness during the first day (P<0.05), and a lower mean activity of the 5 h with lowest activity within the first 24 h (P=0.01), as compared to the non-delirious patients. Already at a very early stage after cardiac surgery, a difference in motor activity was observed between patients with and without a delirium. As an unobtrusive method, actigraphy has the potential to be a screening method that may lead to early diagnosis and treatment of delirium.
"The Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) is the oldest and most traditional
scale, created to measure the degree of delirium in patients. Among the scales that
allow delirium stratification, the DRS-R-98 is one of the most well-known and
frequently used in intensive care.(12,16,18) The DRS-R-98 consists of a scale with 16 items (3 of
them used only at the moment of diagnosis and 13 used for stratification in
successive evaluations). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify scales that can establish a quantitative assessment of delirium symptoms in critically ill patients through a systematic review.
Studies that evaluated delirium stratification scales in patients hospitalized in intensive care units were selected in a search performed in the MedLine database. Validation studies of these scales and their target patient populations were analyzed, and we identified the examiner and the signs and symptoms evaluated. In addition, the duration of the application and the sensitivity and specificity of each scale were assessed.
Six scales were identified: the Delirium Detection Score, the Cognitive Test of Delirium, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, The Neelon and Champagne Confusion Scale and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98.
The scales identified allow the stratification and monitoring of critically ill patients with delirium. Among the six scales, the most studied and best suited for use in the intensive care units was the Intensive Care Delirium Screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome in elderly ill patients. Previously, associations between delirium and the dopamine transporter gene (solute carrier family 6, member 3 (SLC6A3)) and dopamine receptor 2 gene (DRD2) were found. The aim of this study was to validate whether markers of the SLC6A3 and DRD2 genes are were associated with delirium in independent populations. Six European populations collected DNA of older delirious patients. Associations were determined per population and results were combined in a meta-analysis. In total 820 medical inpatients, 185 cardiac surgery patients, 134 non-cardiac surgery patients and 502 population-based elderly subjects were included. Mean age was 82 years (SD 7.5 years), 598 (36%) were male, 665 (41%) had pre-existing cognitive impairment, and 558 (34%) experienced delirium. The SLC6A3 rs393795 homozygous AA genotype was more frequent in patients without delirium in all populations. The meta-analysis showed an Odds Ratio (OR) for delirium of 0.4 (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 0.2-0.6, P = 0.0003) for subjects with AA genotype compared to the AG and GG genotypes. SLC6A3 marker rs1042098 showed no association with delirium. In meta-analysis the DRD2 rs6276 homozygous GG genotype showed an OR of 0.8 for delirium (95% C.I. 0.6-1.1, P = 0.24). When subjects were stratified for cognitive status the rs6276 GG genotype showed ORs of 0.6 (95% C.I. 0.4-1.0, P = 0.06) and 0.8 (95% C.I. 0.5-1.5, P = 0.51) for delirium in patients with and without cognitive impairment, respectively. In independent cohorts, a variation in the SLC6A3 gene and possibly the DRD2 gene were found to protect for delirium.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2009; 153B(2):648-55. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.31034 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite of the continuing interest in actigraphy it has a relatively low impact on the everyday medical routine. Accordingly, we set out to review the current state and to recommend relevant further indications for its application, especially in neuropsychiatry.
We surveyed the areas of its use and then reviewed the literature, with special regard to its advantages and methodological limitations. Adding to the results we enlarged the results with our own personal experience.
The limitations of the method may be decreased by methodological manipulations (a simple rational data reduction is recommended). Actigraphy appears to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of illnesses, syndromes or disorders influencing the vigilance level, the motor performance or the energetic balance of the organism. We constructed a list of the most relevant fields of indication of actigraphy in diagnostics, illustrated by anecdotal actigraphic case records.
Further methodological considerations are needed for the successful evaluation of accelerometry. Targeted basic epidemiological studies in the healthy population and in patient groups should solve various open questions in order to make full use of the advantages of actigraphy in the everyday clinical routine.
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