Neuromelanin MRI in a family with mitochondrial parkinsonism harboring a Y955C mutation in POLG1
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and parkinsonism can be caused by genetic mutations that affect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. We characterized parkinsonism in a family with dominantly inherited PEO. METHODS: We conducted clinical, histological and genetic analyses on two affected members suffering from PEO and parkinsonism, and reviewed the cases in the literature. To clarify parkinsonism related to multiple mtDNA deletions, we used 3-T neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess signal changes in the substantia nigra (SN) and locus ceruleus (LC) in our patients, and compared the results to those observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) (n = 35). RESULTS: We report the first case of a Japanese family harboring a heterozygous p.Y955C mutation in POLG1. The clinical features of parkinsonism related to the Y955C mutation in a total of 16 patients, including our two cases, are indistinguishable from iPD. However, neuromelanin MRI showed a distinct pattern in our cases compared to iPD. The neuromelanin imaging results were consistent with the neuropathological findings reported in cases of POLG1 mutations, in which neurons of the SN were profoundly affected while those in the LC were preserved. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 3-T neuromelanin MRI may be useful for differentiating POLG1 mutation-associated parkinsonism from iPD, and that POLG1 mutations may cause selective neuronal loss in the SN via a mechanism different from that of iPD.
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ABSTRACT: We characterize the contrast behavior of substantia nigra (SN) in both magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, which is believed to be sensitive to neuromelanin (NM), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Images were acquired with a MT prepared dual echo gradient echo sequence. The first echo was taken as the MT contrast image and the second was used to generate the SWI image. SN volumes were segmented from these two types of images using a thresholding method. The spatial and signal characteristics of the extracted SWI and MT volumes were compared. Both images showed the presence of SN but the volumes of the SN identified in the two are spatially incongruent. The MT volume was more caudal than the SWI volume and with only a 12% overlap between the two volumes. Considering the SN volumes in each hemisphere separately, the average distances between the centers of mass of the volumes from the two types images are 5.1±1.1mm and 4.1±1.2mm, respectively. The frequency offsets (homodyne filtered phase/echo time) for the volumes derived from MT (NM) images and SWI images are 0.09±0.32 radians/s and -1.12±0.57 radians/s (p<0.0001), respectively. The MT contrasts for the two volumes are 0.16±0.02 and 0.10±0.03 (p<0.001), respectively. Our results indicate that the two contrasts are sensitive to different portions of the SN, with MT seeing the more caudal portion of the SN than SWI, likely due to variations of NM and iron content in the SN. Despite the small overlap, these regions are complementary. Our results provide a new understanding of the contrast behavior of the SN in the two imaging approaches commonly used to image it and indicate that using both may yield a more comprehensive visualization of the SN. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.NeuroImage 02/2015; 112. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.045 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is an eye movement disorder characterised by paresis of the extra ocular muscles and muscle restricted multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Classification of patients is particularly difficult due to overlapping phenotypes and a poor genotype-phenotype relationship. Despite the identification of several nuclear encoded genes causing PEO, over half of patients with clinically confirmed PEO do not have a genetic diagnosis. Objective: To systematically review genotypic and phenotypic correlates of published cases of adult-onset PEO. Methods: Patients were identified from interrogation of articles from Scopus, Medline via PubMed, and Genetic Abstracts databases using electronic searches (1st January 1970 to 8th November 2013). Reference lists and UniProt entries were also manually checked for additional articles. Results: Twelve nuclear encoded genes were identified (TYMP, SLC25A4, POLG, C10ORF2, OPA1, POLG2, RRM2B, TK2, DGUOK, MPV17, MGME1, and DNA2) systematically from 583 patients. At the time of writing, mutations in SPG7 and AFG3L2 genes were reported to be associated with ophthalmoparesis and multiple mtDNA deletions in fourteen additional adult-onset PEO patients, bringing the total number of known genes to fourteen. Conclusions: Diagnostic yield is still critically dependent on the meticulous clinical and biochemical characterisation of patients. Understanding the intimate relationship between genotype and phenotype remains a fundamental challenge. The results of this systematic review provide guidance to both patients and clinician about future prognosis, and will serve, in future, to assess methods of disease prevention and evaluation of targeted therapeutic strategies.
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ABSTRACT: Polymerase γ (POLG) is the enzyme responsible for the replication and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in the POLG1 gene can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, producing a wide range of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. Neurological manifestations include ataxia, muscular weakness, epilepsy, progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), ptosis, neuropathy, psychiatric disorders and, more rarely, parkinsonism. We present the case of an 80-year old female patient with a history of PEO, ptosis, childish behaviour, obsessive disorder, cognitive decline, and parkinsonism. A comprehensive study showed striatal dopamine deficiency on DaT Scan and ragged red fibres as evidenced by Gomori staining in a biopsy of the biceps brachii. Multiple deletions of mtDNA were detected, and sequencing of the POLG1 gene identified a novel substitution, 2834A>T, in exon 18, changing the p.His945Leu amino acid. In silico analysis using PolyPhen-2 (http://genetics.bwh.hardvard.edu/pph2/) predicted that this change is probably damaging, with a score of 1.0 (0-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 02/2015; 350(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.02.011 · 2.26 Impact Factor