Effects of ceramide, ceramidase inhibition and expression of ceramide kinase on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha; additional role of ceramide-1-phosphate in phosphorylation and Ca2+ signaling.
ABSTRACT Ceramide and the metabolites including ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and sphingosine are reported to regulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and/or phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in many cell types including lymphocytes. Recent studies established that C1P, a product of ceramide kinase, interacts directly with Ca(2+) binding regions in the C2 domain of alpha type cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)alpha), leading to translocation of the enzyme from the cytosol to the perinuclear region in cells. However, a precise mechanism for C1P-induced activation of cPLA(2)alpha has not been well elucidated; such as the phosphorylation signal caused by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway, a downstream of the protein kinase C activation with 4beta-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), is required or not. In the present study, we showed that the increase in intracellular ceramide levels (exogenously added cell permeable ceramides and an inhibition of ceramidase by (1S,2R)-D-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol and the increase in C1P formation by transfection with the vector for human ceramide kinase significantly enhanced the Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187) -induced release of AA via cPLA(2)alpha's activation in CHO cells. Ceramides did not show additional effects on the release from the cells treated with the inhibitor of ceramidase. Ceramides and C2-C1P neither had effect on the intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+) nor the phosphorylation of cPLA(2)alpha in cells. A23187/PMA-induced release of AA was enhanced by ceramides and C2-C1P and by expression of ceramide kinase. Our findings suggest that C1P is a stimulatory factor on cPLA(2)alpha that is independent of the Ca(2+) signal and the PKC-ERK-mediated phosphorylation signal.
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ABSTRACT: The arachidonic acid (AA) cascade is regulated mainly by the actions of two rate-limiting enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PLA2 acts to generate AA, which serves as the precursor substrate for COX-2 in the metabolic pathway leading to prostaglandin production. Amongst more than 30 members of the PLA2 family, cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α, group IVA) plays a major role in releasing AA from cellular membranes. Sphingolipids are a novel class of bioactive lipids that play key roles in the regulation of several cellular processes including growth, differentiation, inflammatory responses, and apoptosis. Recent studies implicated a regulatory function of sphingolipids in prostaglandin production. Whereas ceramide-1-phosphate and lactosylceramide activate cPLA2α directly, sphingosine-1-phosphate induces COX-2 expression. Sphingomyelin has been shown to inhibit the activity of cPLA2α. In addition, several sphingolipid analogs including a therapeutic agent currently used clinically are also reported to be inhibitors of cPLA2α. This review explores the role of sphingolipids in the regulation of cPLA2α and COX-2.Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 01/2009; 111(2):182-192. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prenatal alcohol exposure, especially during early pregnancy, can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of ethanol are related to the effects of ceramide. In this study, we established an alcohol exposure model in wild-type mice and in knockout mice for the key enzyme involved in ceramide metabolism, sphingomyelin synthase 2. This model received daily intragastric administration of 25% ethanol, and pups were used at postnatal days 0, 7, 14, 30 for experiments. Serology and immunofluorescence staining found that ethanol exposure dose-dependently reduced blood sphingomyelin levels in two genotypes of pups, and increased neural cell proliferation and the number of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression level of protein kinase C α increased in two notypes of pups after ethanol exposure. Compared with wild-type pups, the expression level of the important activator protein of the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway, protein kinase C α, was reduced in the hippocampus of sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockouts. Our findings illustrate that ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of pups after prenatal ethanol exposure, and the mechanism may be associated with increased pression of protein kinase C α activating the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway.Neural Regeneration Research 08/2013; 8(23):2178-89. · 0.23 Impact Factor