Effects of ceramide, ceramidase inhibition and expression of ceramide kinase on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha; additional role of ceramide-1-phosphate in phosphorylation and Ca2+ signaling.
ABSTRACT Ceramide and the metabolites including ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and sphingosine are reported to regulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and/or phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in many cell types including lymphocytes. Recent studies established that C1P, a product of ceramide kinase, interacts directly with Ca(2+) binding regions in the C2 domain of alpha type cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)alpha), leading to translocation of the enzyme from the cytosol to the perinuclear region in cells. However, a precise mechanism for C1P-induced activation of cPLA(2)alpha has not been well elucidated; such as the phosphorylation signal caused by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway, a downstream of the protein kinase C activation with 4beta-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), is required or not. In the present study, we showed that the increase in intracellular ceramide levels (exogenously added cell permeable ceramides and an inhibition of ceramidase by (1S,2R)-D-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol and the increase in C1P formation by transfection with the vector for human ceramide kinase significantly enhanced the Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187) -induced release of AA via cPLA(2)alpha's activation in CHO cells. Ceramides did not show additional effects on the release from the cells treated with the inhibitor of ceramidase. Ceramides and C2-C1P neither had effect on the intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+) nor the phosphorylation of cPLA(2)alpha in cells. A23187/PMA-induced release of AA was enhanced by ceramides and C2-C1P and by expression of ceramide kinase. Our findings suggest that C1P is a stimulatory factor on cPLA(2)alpha that is independent of the Ca(2+) signal and the PKC-ERK-mediated phosphorylation signal.
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ABSTRACT: Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) has been shown to bind with C2 domain in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)α, PLA2G4A) and activate the enzyme activity directly. In cells, C1P causes translocation of cPLA(2)α to perinuclear regions including the Golgi complex by interacting with C2 domain in the enzyme, and then cPLA(2)α releases arachidonic acid from substrate phospholipids in the regions. In this study, we synthesized new di-ethyl (DE) phosphate ester analogs of C1P with N-acyl chains of different lengths, and examined their effects on cPLA(2)α. A DE-C1P analog with a C2-N-acyl chain (C2-DE-C1P), but not DE-C1P analogs with longer N-acyl chain, such as C6- and C16-DE-C1P, inhibited release of arachidonic acid via cPLA(2)α activation in CHO-W11A cells expressing platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptors without changing secretory phospholipase A(2)-induced release. Treatment with C2-DE-C1P did not modify phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cPLA(2)α and increase of intracellular Ca(2+) level induced by PAF, but inhibited Ca(2+)- and PAF-induced accumulation of cPLA(2)α in the Golgi complex. Phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing C2-DE-C1P reduced cPLA(2)α activity in vitro. C2-DE-C1P disturbed the binding of the enzyme to glycerophospholipids in the lipid-protein overlay assay, and the reagent alone did not bind to the enzyme. Interestingly, C2-DE-C1P inhibited neither Ca(2+)- and PAF-induced accumulation of C2 domain of cPLA(2)α in the Golgi complex nor binding of cPLA(2)α to C16-C1P. These results suggest that C2-DE-C1P appeared to inhibit cPLA(2)α, probably by interaction with a site in the catalytic domain of the enzyme, not with the site in C2 domain responsible for native C1P.European journal of pharmacology 10/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-surgical therapies for human malignancies must negotiate complex cell signaling pathways to impede cancer cell growth, ideally promoting death of cancer cells while sparing healthy tissue. For most of the past half century, medical approaches for treating cancer have relied primarily on cytotoxic chemotherapeutics that interfere with DNA replication and cell division, susceptibilities of rapidly dividing cancer cells. As a consequence, these therapies exert considerable cell stress, promoting the generation of ceramide through de novo synthesis and recycling of complex glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin into apoptotic ceramide. Radiotherapy of cancer exerts similar geno- and cytotoxic cell stresses, and generation of ceramide following ionizing radiation therapy is a well-described feature of radiation-induced cell death. Emerging evidence now describes sphingolipids as mediators of death in response to newer targeted therapies, cementing ceramide generation as a common mechanism of cell death in response to cancer therapy. Many studies have now shown that dysregulation of ceramide accumulation-whether by reduced generation or accelerated metabolism-is a common mechanism of resistance to standard cancer therapies. The aims of this chapter will be to discuss described mechanisms of cancer resistance to therapy related to dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism and to explore clinical and preclinical approaches to interdict sphingolipid metabolism to improve outcomes of standard cancer therapies.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2013; 117:1-36. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prenatal alcohol exposure, especially during early pregnancy, can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of ethanol are related to the effects of ceramide. In this study, we established an alcohol exposure model in wild-type mice and in knockout mice for the key enzyme involved in ceramide metabolism, sphingomyelin synthase 2. This model received daily intragastric administration of 25% ethanol, and pups were used at postnatal days 0, 7, 14, 30 for experiments. Serology and immunofluorescence staining found that ethanol exposure dose-dependently reduced blood sphingomyelin levels in two genotypes of pups, and increased neural cell proliferation and the number of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression level of protein kinase C α increased in two notypes of pups after ethanol exposure. Compared with wild-type pups, the expression level of the important activator protein of the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway, protein kinase C α, was reduced in the hippocampus of sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockouts. Our findings illustrate that ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of pups after prenatal ethanol exposure, and the mechanism may be associated with increased pression of protein kinase C α activating the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway.Neural Regeneration Research 08/2013; 8(23):2178-89. · 0.14 Impact Factor