Effects of ceramide, ceramidase inhibition and expression of ceramide kinase on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha; additional role of ceramide-1-phosphate in phosphorylation and Ca2+ signaling.
ABSTRACT Ceramide and the metabolites including ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and sphingosine are reported to regulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and/or phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in many cell types including lymphocytes. Recent studies established that C1P, a product of ceramide kinase, interacts directly with Ca(2+) binding regions in the C2 domain of alpha type cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)alpha), leading to translocation of the enzyme from the cytosol to the perinuclear region in cells. However, a precise mechanism for C1P-induced activation of cPLA(2)alpha has not been well elucidated; such as the phosphorylation signal caused by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway, a downstream of the protein kinase C activation with 4beta-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), is required or not. In the present study, we showed that the increase in intracellular ceramide levels (exogenously added cell permeable ceramides and an inhibition of ceramidase by (1S,2R)-D-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol and the increase in C1P formation by transfection with the vector for human ceramide kinase significantly enhanced the Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187) -induced release of AA via cPLA(2)alpha's activation in CHO cells. Ceramides did not show additional effects on the release from the cells treated with the inhibitor of ceramidase. Ceramides and C2-C1P neither had effect on the intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+) nor the phosphorylation of cPLA(2)alpha in cells. A23187/PMA-induced release of AA was enhanced by ceramides and C2-C1P and by expression of ceramide kinase. Our findings suggest that C1P is a stimulatory factor on cPLA(2)alpha that is independent of the Ca(2+) signal and the PKC-ERK-mediated phosphorylation signal.
- SourceAvailable from: Sally J Mangum[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A persistent inflammatory reaction is a hallmark of chronic and acute pathologies in the central nervous system (CNS) and greatly exacerbates neuronal degeneration. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory processes provoking oxidative stress, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and the production of bioactive lipids. We established in neuronal cells that TNFα exposure dramatically increased Mg(2+)-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) activity thus generating the bioactive lipid mediator ceramide essential for subsequent NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation and oxidative stress. Since many of the pleiotropic effects of ceramide are attributable to its metabolites, we examined whether ceramide kinase (CerK), converting ceramide to ceramide-1-phosphate, is implicated both in NOX activation and enhanced eicosanoid production in neuronal cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNFα exposure of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma caused a profound increase in CerK activity. Depleting CerK activity using either siRNA or pharmacology completely negated NOX activation and eicosanoid biosynthesis yet, more importantly, rescued neuronal viability in the presence of TNFα. These findings provided evidence for a critical function of ceramide-1-phospate and thus CerK activity in directly linking sphingolipid metabolism to oxidative stress. This vital role of CerK in CNS inflammation could provide a novel therapeutic approach to intervene with the adverse consequences of a progressive CNS inflammation.Cellular signalling 12/2011; 24(6):1126-33. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian Golgi complex, trans Golgi network (TGN) and ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) are comprised of membrane cisternae, coated vesicles and membrane tubules, all of which contribute to membrane trafficking and maintenance of their unique architectures. Recently, a new cast of players was discovered to regulate the Golgi and ERGIC: four unrelated cytoplasmic phospholipase A (PLA) enzymes, cPLA(2)α (GIVA cPLA(2)), PAFAH Ib (GVIII PLA(2)), iPLA(2)-β (GVIA-2 iPLA(2)) and iPLA(1)γ. These ubiquitously expressed enzymes regulate membrane trafficking from specific Golgi subcompartments, although there is evidence for some functional redundancy between PAFAH Ib and cPLA(2)α. Three of these enzymes, PAFAH Ib, cPLA(2)α and iPLA(2)-β, exert effects on Golgi structure and function by inducing the formation of membrane tubules. We review our current understanding of how PLA enzymes regulate Golgi and ERGIC morphology and function.Trends in cell biology 11/2011; 22(2):116-24. · 12.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids represent a class of diverse bioactive lipid molecules that are increasingly appreciated as key modulators of diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that include cell growth, cell death, autophagy, angiogenesis, and stress and inflammatory responses. Sphingomyelinases and ceramidases are key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism that regulate the formation and degradation of ceramide, one of the most intensely studied classes of sphingolipids. Improved understanding of these enzymes that control not only the levels of ceramide but also the complex interconversion of sphingolipid metabolites has provided the foundation for the functional analysis of the roles of sphingolipids. Our current understanding of the roles of various sphingolipids in the regulation of different cellular processes has come from loss-of-function/gain-of-function studies utilizing genetic deletion/downregulation/overexpression of enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism (e.g. knockout animals, RNA interference) and from the use of pharmacologic inhibitors of these same enzymes. While genetic approaches to evaluate the functional roles of sphingolipid enzymes have been instrumental in advancing the field, the use of pharmacologic inhibitors has been equally important in identifying new roles for sphingolipids in important cellular processes.The latter also promises the development of novel therapeutic targets with implications for cancer therapy, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on the status and use of pharmacologic compounds that inhibit sphingomyelinases and ceramidases, and we will review the history, current uses and future directions for various small molecule inhibitors, and will highlight studies in which inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been used to effectively treat models of human disease.British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2011; 163(4):694-712. · 5.07 Impact Factor