Ceramide and the metabolites including ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and sphingosine are reported to regulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and/or phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in many cell types including lymphocytes. Recent studies established that C1P, a product of ceramide kinase, interacts directly with Ca(2+) binding regions in the C2 domain of alpha type cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)alpha), leading to translocation of the enzyme from the cytosol to the perinuclear region in cells. However, a precise mechanism for C1P-induced activation of cPLA(2)alpha has not been well elucidated; such as the phosphorylation signal caused by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway, a downstream of the protein kinase C activation with 4beta-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), is required or not. In the present study, we showed that the increase in intracellular ceramide levels (exogenously added cell permeable ceramides and an inhibition of ceramidase by (1S,2R)-D-erythro-2-(N-myristoylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol and the increase in C1P formation by transfection with the vector for human ceramide kinase significantly enhanced the Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187) -induced release of AA via cPLA(2)alpha's activation in CHO cells. Ceramides did not show additional effects on the release from the cells treated with the inhibitor of ceramidase. Ceramides and C2-C1P neither had effect on the intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+) nor the phosphorylation of cPLA(2)alpha in cells. A23187/PMA-induced release of AA was enhanced by ceramides and C2-C1P and by expression of ceramide kinase. Our findings suggest that C1P is a stimulatory factor on cPLA(2)alpha that is independent of the Ca(2+) signal and the PKC-ERK-mediated phosphorylation signal.
"D-e-MAPP resulted in blockage of progestin and adiponectinreceptor (PAQR), involving SLs, and ceramidases downstream of PAQR signalling, an important hormone receptor related to pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease (Kupchak et al., 2009). Other studies have shown D-e-MAPP, as well as exogenous short length acyl-ceramides, to enhance the A23187 (Ca 2+ ionophore)-induced release of arachidonic acid, associated with an increase of endogenous ceramide accumulation (Shimizu et al., 2009). Modifications of the structure of D-e-MAPP led to B13 ((1R,2R)-2- (N-tetradecanoylamino)-1- (4-nitrophenyl)-1,3- propanediol), a more water soluble form. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids represent a class of diverse bioactive lipid molecules that are increasingly appreciated as key modulators of diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that include cell growth, cell death, autophagy, angiogenesis, and stress and inflammatory responses. Sphingomyelinases and ceramidases are key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism that regulate the formation and degradation of ceramide, one of the most intensely studied classes of sphingolipids. Improved understanding of these enzymes that control not only the levels of ceramide but also the complex interconversion of sphingolipid metabolites has provided the foundation for the functional analysis of the roles of sphingolipids. Our current understanding of the roles of various sphingolipids in the regulation of different cellular processes has come from loss-of-function/gain-of-function studies utilizing genetic deletion/downregulation/overexpression of enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism (e.g. knockout animals, RNA interference) and from the use of pharmacologic inhibitors of these same enzymes. While genetic approaches to evaluate the functional roles of sphingolipid enzymes have been instrumental in advancing the field, the use of pharmacologic inhibitors has been equally important in identifying new roles for sphingolipids in important cellular processes.The latter also promises the development of novel therapeutic targets with implications for cancer therapy, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on the status and use of pharmacologic compounds that inhibit sphingomyelinases and ceramidases, and we will review the history, current uses and future directions for various small molecule inhibitors, and will highlight studies in which inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been used to effectively treat models of human disease.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2011; 163(4):694-712. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01279.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isotherms of surface pressure and surface potential versus mean molecular area for dibehenoylphosphatidylcholine (DBPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) monolayers were shown to be greatly modified when these lipids were cospread with either Bauhinia monandra (BmoLL) or Concanavalin A (Con A) lectins. For the binary films of DBPC, DPPC, and DPPE cospread with each of these two lectins, there was both a displacement of the Pi-A and DeltaV-A isotherms toward higher molecular areas relative to pure lipids and an increase in the maximum surface potential values relative to the DeltaV-A relationships observed for the corresponding single-lectin systems. Both effects can be understood in terms of the occurrence of an explicit interaction between the lipids and the lectins. The plots of the corresponding compressibilities versus molecular areas reveal that, for all lipids but DOPC, the extent of this interaction was always larger for BmoLL than for Con A. The DPPC and DPPE mixed films with BmoLL differed in compressibility. Owing to the small DPPE polar headgroup, the DPPE-BmoLL film was much more incompressible than the DPPC-BmoLL mixed monolayer. However, for the DOPC-BmoLL and DOPC-Con A mixed films there was no evidence that an interaction between the lectins and the lipid took place, a fact attributed to the unsaturated character in the DOPC aliphatic chains, which leads to an expanded Pi-A isotherm.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 10/2005; 289(2):379-85. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2005.05.063 · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) belong to a superfamily of enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing the sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. These enzymes are known to play multiple roles for maintenance of membrane phospholipid homeostasis and for production of a variety of lipid mediators. Over 20 different types of PLA2s are present in the mammalian cells, and in snake and bee venom. Despite their common function in hydrolyzing fatty acids of phospholipids, they are diversely encoded by a number of genes and express proteins that are regulated by different mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the group IV calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2, the group VI calcium-independent iPLA2, and the group II small molecule secretory sPLA2. In the central nervous system (CNS), these PLA2s are distributed among neurons and glial cells. Although the physiological role of these PLA2s in regulating neural cell function has not yet been clearly elucidated, there is increasing evidence for their involvement in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways that link oxidative events to inflammatory responses that underline many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies also reveal an important role of cPLA2 in modulating neuronal excitatory functions, sPLA2 in the inflammatory responses, and iPLA2 with childhood neurologic disorders associated with brain iron accumulation. The goal for this review is to better understand the structure and function of these PLA2s and to highlight specific types of PLA2s and their cross-talk mechanisms in these inflammatory responses under physiological and pathological conditions in the CNS.
Neuromolecular medicine 10/2009; 12(2):133-48. DOI:10.1007/s12017-009-8092-z · 3.68 Impact Factor
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