Utility of subtraction ictal SPECT images in detecting focal leading activity and understanding the pathophysiology of spasms in patients with West syndrome.
ABSTRACT The aims of the study were to evaluate the detectability of focal leading activity in three cases of West syndrome having focal abnormal activity on EEG by comparing subtraction ictal images and raw ictal images, and to interpret the results in 16 cases.
Subtraction images were constructed using iNeurostat (revision 2).
In three cases with focal abnormal activity on EEG, subtraction ictal images reflected the EEG findings; in contrast, raw ictal images did not. Diverse degrees of cortical hyperperfusion, ranging from zero to 10 sites, seen in the other 13 cases seemed to reflect spasm pathophysiology and rapid spasm propagation. Subtraction ictal images also allowed the ready detection of hyperperfusion of subcortical structures and of a tight cortico-subcortical relationship in a subset of cases.
We showed the superiority of subtraction ictal images in detecting the focal epileptic region and in showing propagation pathways from the cortex to subcortical structures. A subset of spasms in WS may be focal cortical-onset secondarily generalized seizures. We believe that subtraction analysis is valuable in patients with complex WS who have partial seizures and spasms simultaneously along with focal epileptic EEG activity, as they will likely be candidates for epilepsy surgery.
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ABSTRACT: In order to validate the ability of ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in children, we compared in 20 patients aged from 10 months to 17 years (mean 6.5 years) the topography of the area of increased ictal perfusion (IPA), determined on the basis of ictal minus interictal scan values, with that of the EZ determined by intracranial EEG recordings and assessed its relationship with the postsurgical outcome. Eighteen patients had symptomatic epilepsy and 10 had extratemporal epilepsy. All patients except one had an ictal injection (mean time lag from clinical seizure onset was 18 s). Ictal and interictal SPECT images were successively co-registered, normalized, subtracted, smoothed and superimposed on MRI. All patients with ictal injection exhibited one or several IPAs. The topography of the 'highest' IPA, i.e. the maximal cerebral blood flow (CBF) change between ictal and interictal SPECT, significantly colocalized with the site of onset of the discharge, and that of the lower IPAs with that of the area of propagation (P < 0.0001). At a threshold of 30% of the maximal CBF change, the IPAs detected the onset of the discharge with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.70. The highest IPA localized the EZ in 12 out of 15 patients. In the three others it missed the EZ and showed the area of propagation because of rapid seizure propagation or of infraclinical seizure onset. Among the patients with favourable surgery outcome, the highest IPA colocalized with the resected area in 70% of cases. Ictal SPECT could therefore plays an important role as a non-invasive presurgical method of investigation by optimizing the placement of intracranial electrodes, thus improving the postsurgery outcome of paediatric partial epilepsy.Brain 01/2003; 126(Pt 1):248-60. · 9.92 Impact Factor
Article: Partial seizures in West syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To study the occurrence of partial seizures (PS) and elucidate the characteristics of patients with West syndrome (WS) with PS. We investigated the electroclinical and radiologic features in 92 children with WS who were older than 3 years at follow-up. Thirty-six (39.1%) children had PS at some time during the course of the disease. They had a significantly high incidence of asymmetric spasms, hemiparesis, and asymmetric hypsarrhythmia. Their seizure prognosis was significantly less favorable. PS appeared only before spasms (group A, six children), concomitant with spasms (group B, 18 children), and only after spasms ceased (group C, 12 children). Five children in group B had PS after spasms stopped. PS in group A and during the period of active spasms in group B showed high seizure frequency and variability of both seizures and EEG manifestations. The PS and EEG epileptiform discharges were mainly in parietal-posterior temporal-occipital, and central regions. Late PSs in group B and PSs in group C were characterized by stereotyped manifestations and relatively low seizure frequency. These PSs originated mostly from frontal regions. In some children with WS, cortical lesions can induce both PS and spasms in series, whereas in others, both types of seizures occur with abnormally increased excitability throughout the cortex rather than as the result of a single cortical lesion. These findings suggest caution in interpreting focal discharges, which may fluctuate and are not necessarily indicative of a surgically accessible lesion. When the discharges are stable and correlate with an equally stable clinical pattern, the likelihood of an underlying cortical lesion is greater.Epilepsia 12/1996; 37(11):1060-7. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Very fast activity was investigated on the ictal EEGs of epileptic spasms to elucidate the pathophysiology of West syndrome (WS) and related disorders from a novel point of view. The traces of scalp ictal EEG of spasms temporally were expanded in 11 patients whose clinical diagnosis was symptomatic WS in six, cryptogenic WS in two, Aicardi syndrome in one, and symptomatic generalized epilepsy after WS in the remaining two. Time evolution of averaged power spectra of the ictal fast activity also was analyzed in each patient. Rhythmic gamma activity with frequency ranging from 50 to 100 Hz was detected in a total of 345 of 537 spasms. Fast activity was seen bilaterally in nine patients, was lateralized to one hemisphere in another, and appeared independently on each hemisphere in the remaining infant with Aicardi syndrome. Power spectra showed a clear peak corresponding to spasm-associated gamma rhythm, with frequency centering approximately 65 Hz and ranging from 51 to 98 Hz. The morphology and spectral characteristics of ictal gamma rhythm were completely different from those of muscle activity or alternating current (AC) artifacts. Spasm-associated gamma activity was clearly detected on the scalp. This observation may provide a clue to the pathophysiology of spasms.Epilepsia 06/2004; 45(5):488-96. · 3.91 Impact Factor