Rapid synchronization of hepatitis C virus infection by magnetic adsorption.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into target cells is thought to be a multistep process involving several cellular factors. However, their precise role during virus entry is unclear. Investigation of the mechanisms of HCV entry, such as the order of intervention by the cellular receptors, requires synchronizing infections. This study describes a new method involving magnetic adsorption of virus to nanoparticles to synchronize infection, which can be adapted to both HCV pseudoparticles and cell culture infectious HCV. By combining these particles with negatively or positively charged magnetic nanoparticles it was possible to adsorb them onto target cells under a magnetic field in only 2min. This resulted in greater efficiency of virus adsorption to cells, and increased the infectivity of cell culture infectious virus, as compared to the standard protocol involving incubation of the virus with cells at 4 degrees C for 1h, or to a standard infection at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, magnetic adsorption respected the natural entry route of the virus, making this system suitable to study the early stages of HCV infection.
- SourceAvailable from: uidaho.eduAnnual Review of Physiology 02/1995; 57:19-42. · 19.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a pleiotropic phosphoprotein that has been shown to associate with a wide variety of cellular signaling proteins. Of particular interest is the observation that a highly conserved C-terminal Class II polyproline motif within NS5A mediated association with the Src homology 3 domains of members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases and the mitogenic adaptor protein Grb2 (A. Macdonald, K. Crowder, A. Street, C. McCormick, and M. Harris, submitted for publication). In this study, we analyzed the consequences of NS5A expression on mitogenic signaling pathways within a variety of cell lines. Utilizing a transient luciferase reporter system, we observed that NS5A inhibited the activity of the mitogenic and stress-activated transcription factor activating protein-1 (AP1). This inhibition was dependent upon a Class II polyproline motif within NS5A. Using a combination of dominant active and negative mutants of components of the MAPK signaling pathways, selective inhibitors, together with immunoblotting with phospho-specific and phosphorylation-independent antibodies, we determined the signaling pathways targeted by NS5A to inhibit AP1. These studies demonstrated that in both stable NS5A-expressing cells and Huh-7-derived cells harboring subgenomic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicons, this inhibition was mediated through the ERK signaling pathway. Importantly, a comparable inhibition of AP1 reporter activity was observed in hepatocyte-derived cell lines transduced with a baculovirus vector driving expression of full-length HCV polyprotein. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest a role for the NS5A protein in the perturbation of mitogenic signaling pathways in HCV-infected hepatocytes.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2003; 278(20):17775-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. A better understanding of the viral life cycle, including the mechanisms of entry into host cells, is needed to identify novel therapeutic targets. Although HCV entry requires the CD81 co-receptor, and other host molecules have been implicated, at least one factor critical to this process remains unknown (reviewed in refs 1-3). Using an iterative expression cloning approach we identified claudin-1 (CLDN1), a tight junction component that is highly expressed in the liver, as essential for HCV entry. CLDN1 is required for HCV infection of human hepatoma cell lines and is the first factor to confer susceptibility to HCV when ectopically expressed in non-hepatic cells. Discrete residues within the first extracellular loop (EL1) of CLDN1, but not protein interaction motifs in intracellular domains, are critical for HCV entry. Moreover, antibodies directed against an epitope inserted in the CLDN1 EL1 block HCV infection. The kinetics of this inhibition indicate that CLDN1 acts late in the entry process, after virus binding and interaction with the HCV co-receptor CD81. With CLDN1 we have identified a novel key factor for HCV entry and a new target for antiviral drug development.Nature 05/2007; 446(7137):801-5. · 38.60 Impact Factor