Identification of a novel 5-HT(4) receptor splice variant (r5-HT(4c1)) and preliminary characterisation of specific 5-HT(4a) and 5-HT(4b) receptor antibodies.
ABSTRACT The human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(4)) receptor is encoded by a highly complex gene which gives rise to at least 10 distinct splice variants. However, the functional relevance of these variants is unknown. In rat, only three such variants have been identified, 5-HT(4a) (r5-HT(4a)), 5-HT(4b) (r5-HT(4b)) and 5-HT(4e) (r5-HT(4e)). In the current study we identify and characterise the pharmacology of a novel rat splice variant (r5-HT(4c1)) and present the first comprehensive analysis of 5-HT(4) splice variant mRNA expression levels throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we describe preliminary characterisation of the first 5-HT(4) splice variant specific antibodies. In transfected cells, r5-HT(4c1) receptor exhibited similar binding properties to r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b). Functional studies showed that 5-HT(4) agonists prucalopride (4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N-[1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-7-benzofuran carboxamide monohydrochloride and renzapride (+/-)-endo-4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-N-(1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-4-yl)benzamide monohydrochloride) acted as partial agonists at r5-HT(4c1), but full agonists at r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b). Moreover, in contrast to r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b), r5-HT(4c1) was not constitutively active. TaqMan mRNA analysis showed that r5-HT(4a) expression in brain and dorsal root ganglion exceeded that in the gastrointestinal tract, whilst the reverse was true for r5-HT(4b) and r5-HT(4c1). mRNA expression of each variant also increased distally throughout the gastrointestinal tract with the highest levels in the colon. r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b) specific immunoreactivity was abundant on enteric neurons in jejunum, ileum and colon as well as neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion. Only r5-HT(4b) immunoreactivity was observed on endocrine cells in the duodenum. These data could have implications in rat models and aid understanding of 5-HT(4) splice variant function.
- Journal of Neurochemistry - J NEUROCHEM. 01/2001; 74(2):478-489.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current pharmacological treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) addresses changes in neurohumoral stimulation or cardiac responsiveness to such stimulation. Yet, undiscovered neurohumoral changes, adaptive or maladaptive, may occur in CHF and suggest novel pharmacological treatment. Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] enhances contractility and causes arrhythmias through 5-HT(4) receptors in human atrium and ventricle but not through rat ventricular 5-HT(4) receptors. We investigated whether CHF could induce ventricular responsiveness to serotonin. Postinfarction CHF was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary artery ligation. Contractility was measured in left ventricular papillary muscles 6 weeks after infarction. Messenger RNA was quantified by RT-PCR and cAMP by RIA. Serotonin caused positive inotropic (-logEC(50)=7.5) and lusitropic effects in CHF but not Sham papillary muscles. The inotropic effect of 10 muM serotonin in CHF (31.3+/-2.2%) was of similar size as the effect of 10 muM isoproterenol (34.0+/-1.7%). The effects of serotonin were antagonised by GR113808 (0.5-5 nM), consistent with mediation through 5-HT(4) receptors. This was further supported by positive inotropic effects of the 5-HT(4)-selective partial agonist RS67506. Carbachol blunted the serotonin responses and serotonin increased ventricular and cardiomyocyte cAMP, consistent with coupling to G(s) and adenylyl cyclase. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed fourfold increased 5-HT(4(b)) mRNA expression in CHF vs. Sham ventricles. Functional ventricular 5-HT(4) receptors are induced by myocardial infarction and CHF of the rat heart. We propose that they are a model for ventricular 5-HT(4) receptors of human failing heart and may play a pathophysiological role in heart failure.Cardiovascular Research 04/2005; 65(4):869-78. · 5.94 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Receptor tyrosine kinases activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases through Ras, Raf-1, and MEK. Receptor tyrosine kinases can be transactivated by G protein-coupled receptors coupling to G(i) and G(q). The human G protein-coupled serotonin receptors 5-HT(4(b)) and 5-HT(7(a)) couple to G(s) and elevate intracellular cAMP. Certain G(s)-coupled receptors have been shown to activate MAP kinases through a protein kinase A- and Rap1-dependent pathway. We report the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 (p44 and p42 MAP kinase) through the human serotonin receptors 5-HT(4(b)) and 5-HT(7(a)) in COS-7 and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. In transfected HEK293 cells, 5-HT-induced activation of ERK1/2 is sensitive to H89, which indicates a role for protein kinase A. The observed activation of ERK1/2 does not require transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors. Furthermore, 5-HT induced activation of both Ras and Rap1. Whereas the presence of Rap1GAP1 did not influence the 5-HT-mediated activation of ERK1/2, the activation of ERK1/2 was abolished in the presence of dominant negative Ras (RasN17). ERK1/2 activation was reduced in the presence of "dominant negative" Raf1 (RafS621A) and slightly reduced by dominant negative B-Raf, indicating the involvement of one or more Raf isoforms. These findings suggest that activation of ERK1/2 through the human G(s)-coupled serotonin receptors 5-HT(4(b)) and 5-HT(7(a)) in HEK293 cells is dependent on Ras, but independent of Rap1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(5):3098-104. · 4.65 Impact Factor