HCLK2 is required for activity of the DNA damage response kinase ATR.
ABSTRACT ATR is a protein kinase that orchestrates the cellular response to replication problems and DNA damage. HCLK2 has previously been reported to stabilize ATR and Chk1. Here we provide evidence that human HCLK2 acts at an early step in the ATR signaling pathway and contributes to full-scale activation of ATR kinase activity. We show that HCLK2 forms a complex with ATR-ATRIP and the ATR activator TopBP1. We demonstrate that HCLK2-induced ATR kinase activity toward substrates requires TopBP1 and vice versa and provides evidence that HCLK2 facilitates efficient ATR-TopBP1 association. Consistent with its role in ATR activation, HCLK2 depletion severely impaired phosphorylation of multiple ATR targets including Chk1, Nbs1, and Smc1 after DNA damage. We show that HCLK2 is required for and stimulates ATR autophosphorylation and activity toward different substrates in vitro. Furthermore, HCLK2 depletion abrogated the G(2) checkpoint and decreased survival of cells after exposure to DNA damaging agents and replicative stress. Overall, our data suggest that HCLK2 facilitates ATR activation and, therefore, contributes to ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling. Importantly, our results suggest that HCLK2 functions in the same pathway as TopBP1 but that the two proteins regulate different steps in ATR activation.
Article: Network architecture of signaling from uncoupled helicase-polymerase to cell cycle checkpoints and trans-lesion DNA synthesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: When replication is blocked by a template lesion or polymerase inhibitor while helicase continues unwinding the DNA, single stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulates and becomes coated with RPA, which then initiates signals via PCNA mono-ubiquitination to activate trans-lesion polymerases and via ATR and Chk1 to inhibit Cdk2-dependent cell cycle progression. The signals are conveyed by way of a complex network of molecular interactions. To clarify those complexities, we have constructed a molecular interaction map (MIM) using a novel hierarchical assembly procedure. Molecules were arranged on the map in hierarchical levels according to interaction step distance from the DNA region of stalled replication. The hierarchical MIM allows us to disentangle the network's interlocking pathways and loops and to suggest functionally significant features of network architecture. The MIM shows how parallel pathways and multiple feedback loops can provide failsafe and robust switch-like responses to replication stress. Within the central level of hierarchy ATR and Claspin together appear to function as a nexus that conveys signals from many sources to many destinations. We noted a division of labor between those two molecules, separating enzymatic and structural roles. In addition, the network architecture disclosed by the hierarchical map, suggested a speculative model for how molecular crowding and the granular localization of network components in the cell nucleus can facilitate function.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 08/2009; 8(14):2281-99. · 5.36 Impact Factor
Article: Cell cycle-dependent processing of DNA lesions controls localization of Rad9 to sites of genotoxic stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex functions to facilitate the ATR-mediated phosphorylation of several substrates that control the checkpoint arrest induced by DNA damage. Here we show that in response to genotoxic stress induced by different types of damaging agents, Rad9 rapidly relocalized to sites of single stranded DNA, as visualized by discrete nuclear foci that co-localize with RPA. UV light-induced Rad9 foci also colocalized with TopBP1 and gamma-H2AX. Interestingly, Rad9 foci were predominately formed in G(1) and S phase after UV light, while treatment of cells with ionizing radiation (IR) resulted in accumulation of Rad9 into foci in S and G(2). Photobleaching experiments in living cells revealed that the Rad9 protein is highly mobile in undamaged cells. However, genotoxic stress induced the immobilization of a large proportion of the protein. The proportion of Rad9 immobilization was larger in S phase and the accumulation to sites of locally damaged areas induced by UV-laser irradiation was faster during DNA replication. Inactivation of nucleotide excision repair by knock down of XPA and XPC resulted in a decrease of G(1) phase cells that displayed Rad9 foci in response to UV light, whereas IR-induced Rad9 foci were not affected. In contrast, downregulation of CtIP, which promotes DSB resection, abrogated the IR-induced Rad9 foci. These findings show that due to processing of DNA lesions into a common intermediate, which occurs in a cell cycle-dependent manner, Rad9 is able to respond to different types of genotoxic stress.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 07/2009; 8(11):1765-74. · 5.36 Impact Factor