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    ABSTRACT: Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become any cell in the adult body, including neurons and glia. Avian stem cells could be used to study questions, like vocal learning, that would be difficult to examine with traditional mouse models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem cell state, usually using inducing genes or other molecules. We recently succeeded in generating avian iPSC-like cells using mammalian genes, overcoming a limitation in the generation and use of iPSCs in nonmammalian species (Rosselló et al., 2013). However, there were no established optimal cell culture conditions for avian iPSCs to establish long-term cell lines and thus to study neuronal differentiation in vitro. Here we present an efficient method of maintaining chicken iPSC-like cells and for differentiating them into action potential generating neurons.
    12/2014; 2014:14. DOI:10.1155/2014/182737
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progresses in the field of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) have opened up many gateways for the research in therapeutics. iPSCs are the cells which are reprogrammed from somatic cells using different transcription factors. iPSCs possess unique properties of self renewal and differentiation to many types of cell lineage. Hence could replace the use of embryonic stem cells (ESC), and may overcome the various ethical issues regarding the use of embryos in research and clinics. Overwhelming responses prompted worldwide by a large number of researchers about the use of iPSCs evoked a large number of peple to establish more authentic methods for iPSC generation. This would require understanding the underlying mechanism in a detailed manner. There have been a large number of reports showing potential role of different molecules as putative regulators of iPSC generating methods. The molecular mechanisms that play role in reprogramming to generate iPSCs from different types of somatic cell sources involves a plethora of molecules including miRNAs, DNA modifying agents (viz. DNA methyl transferases), NANOG, etc. While promising a number of important roles in various clinical/research studies, iPSCs could also be of great use in studying molecular mechanism of many diseases. There are various diseases that have been modeled by uing iPSCs for better understanding of their etiology which maybe further utilized for developing putative treatments for these diseases. In addition, iPSCs are used for the production of patient-specific cells which can be transplanted to the site of injury or the site of tissue degeneration due to various disease conditions. The use of iPSCs may eliminate the chances of immune rejection as patient specific cells may be used for transplantation in various engraftment processes. Moreover, iPSC technology has been employed in various diseases for disease modeling and gene therapy. The technique offers benefits over other similar techniques such as animal models. Many toxic compounds (different chemical compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, other hazardous chemicals, or environmental conditions) which are encountered by humans and newly designed drugs may be evaluated for toxicity and effects by using iPSCs. Thus, the applications of iPSCs in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery are enormous and should be explored in a more comprehensive manner.
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2015; 3. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2015.00002
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    ABSTRACT: Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) in mice and rats are primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). They barely contribute to chimeric embryos when injected into blastocysts. Reprogramming of EpiSCs to embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells (rESCs) may occur in response to LIF-STAT3 signaling; however, low reprogramming efficiency hampers potential use of rESCs in generating chimeras. Here, we describe dramatic improvement of conversion efficiency from primed to naive-like PSCs through upregulation of E-cadherin in the presence of the cytokine LIF. Analysis revealed that blocking nuclear localization of β-CATENIN with small-molecule inhibitors significantly enhances reprogramming efficiency of mouse EpiSCs. Although activation of Wnt/β-catenin signals has been thought desirable for maintenance of naive PSCs, this study provides the evidence that inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-CATENIN enhances conversion of mouse EpiSCs to naive-like PSCs (rESCs). This affords better understanding of gene regulatory circuits underlying pluripotency and reprogramming of PSCs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    12/2014; 461(1). DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.12.003

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Jun 13, 2014