Spousal military deployment as a risk factor for postpartum depression.

Department of Psychiatry, Maricopa Integrated Health System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
The Journal of reproductive medicine (Impact Factor: 0.58). 11/2008; 53(11):860-4.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To compare the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) results in women whose spouses had deployed during or after pregnancy vs. those whose spouses had not.
A chart review of 6-week postpartum visits of women with active-duty spouses was conducted over 10 months. Associations between military deployments and EPDS score were examined by Student's t test, and rates of positive screens (with a cutoff of 12) between groups were compared by odds ratio (OR). Linear regression was used to calculate predictors of EPDS score.
A total of 415 charts were analyzed. The average EPDS score of women whose partner did deploy during the pregnancy was 7.36 compared to 4.81 for those whose partners did not (p < 0.001). The percentage of positive screens for women whose partner deployed during the pregnancy was 25.27% compared with 10.94% for an OR of 2.75 (p < 0.001). Linear regression showed partner's deployment during pregnancy to be an independent predictor of EPDS score (p < 0.005).
Deployment of a spouse during pregnancy may be a risk factor for depression. Aggressive screening of this at-risk population is recommended.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression occurs in at least one in seven new mothers, usually within the first 6 months after delivery. By the time of onset of postpartum depression, the mother has usually long since been discharged from the maternity hospital. Early identification and treatment of these mothers reduces both maternal and infant suffering. Careful risk-benefit decision-making regarding various treatment options in the postpartum should be discussed with the mother. Risks of untreated depression include poor bonding with the infant, lack of self care, infant neglect and infanticide.
    Women s Health 06/2009; 5(3):287-95. DOI:10.2217/whe.09.3
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deployment has well documented psychological consequences for military personnel. To fully understand the human cost of war, the psychosocial impact of separation and homecoming of military personnel on their families must also be considered. Recent arduous conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make understanding the impact of war on spouses topical and pertinent. Widespread psychological morbidity and social dysfunction have been reported in spouses of military personnel who have been deployed to combat zones such as Vietnam, with difficulties most acute for spouses of military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A review of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 assessing the impact of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan on spouses of military personnel was conducted. A total of 14 US-based studies were identified which examined psychological morbidity, help seeking, marital dysfunction and stress in spouses. Longer deployments, deployment extensions and PTSD in military personnel were found to be associated with psychological problems for the spouse. Methodological differences in the studies limit direct comparisons. Recommendations for future research are outlined. The needs of spouses of military personnel remain an important issue with implications for service provision and occupational capability of both partners.
    International Review of Psychiatry 04/2011; 23(2):192-200. DOI:10.3109/09540261.2011.560144 · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe the coping behaviors used by Army wives during deployment separation, the perceived effectiveness of the coping behaviors used, and the correlation between the two variables. Data sources: A secondary analysis was conducted to examine coping use and perceived effectiveness, measured by the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS), in a sample of 102 Army wives surveyed during deployment separation. Conclusions: The most used coping subscales from the JCS were the optimistic and supportant and the most effective were the supportant and confrontive. The strongest correlations between coping use and effectiveness were found in the supportant subscale, which measures use of support systems (r= 0.77, p < .00), and the confrontive subscale, which includes behaviors of constructive problem solving (r= 0.62, p < .00). The use and effectiveness of individual behaviors are also identified. Implications for practice: Identifying effective and ineffective coping behaviors of spouses of deployed troops can potentially reduce stress and improve well-being. Primary care providers should encourage military spouses to engage in optimistic thinking, seek out spiritual support, talk to others in a similar situation, and participate in physical activity. Disclosure  The views expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the Department of the Defense, or the United States government.
    Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 11/2012; 24(11):660-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00766.x · 0.87 Impact Factor