Spousal military deployment as a risk factor for postpartum depression.
ABSTRACT To compare the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) results in women whose spouses had deployed during or after pregnancy vs. those whose spouses had not.
A chart review of 6-week postpartum visits of women with active-duty spouses was conducted over 10 months. Associations between military deployments and EPDS score were examined by Student's t test, and rates of positive screens (with a cutoff of 12) between groups were compared by odds ratio (OR). Linear regression was used to calculate predictors of EPDS score.
A total of 415 charts were analyzed. The average EPDS score of women whose partner did deploy during the pregnancy was 7.36 compared to 4.81 for those whose partners did not (p < 0.001). The percentage of positive screens for women whose partner deployed during the pregnancy was 25.27% compared with 10.94% for an OR of 2.75 (p < 0.001). Linear regression showed partner's deployment during pregnancy to be an independent predictor of EPDS score (p < 0.005).
Deployment of a spouse during pregnancy may be a risk factor for depression. Aggressive screening of this at-risk population is recommended.
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- "As compared with wives of personnel who were not deployed, women whose husbands were deployed received more diagnoses of depressive disorders, sleep disorders, anxiety, and acute stress reaction and adjustment disorders (Mansfield et al., 2010). Compared to new mothers whose partners did not deploy, mothers whose partner was deployed during their pregnancy experienced significantly higher rates of postnatal depression (Robrecht et al., 2008). Deployment stress among milspouses has also been negatively associated with regular exercise, social behaviors, regular sleep, and safety–environmental behaviors (Padden, Connors, & Agazio, 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Military spouses (milspouses) enact resilience through communication before, during, and after military deployments. Based on an organizing framework of resilience processes ( Buzzanell, 2010 ), this study examined milspouses' communicative construction of resilience during an increasingly rapid military deployment cycle. Narratives from in-depth interviews with military spouses (n = 24) revealed how resilience is achieved through communication seeking to reconcile the often contradictory realities of milspouses who endure physical, psychological, and social difficulties due to prolonged separations from their partners.Health Communication 10/2013; 28(8). DOI:10.1080/10410236.2013.800441 · 0.97 Impact Factor
Article: Postpartum depression: An update[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression occurs in at least one in seven new mothers, usually within the first 6 months after delivery. By the time of onset of postpartum depression, the mother has usually long since been discharged from the maternity hospital. Early identification and treatment of these mothers reduces both maternal and infant suffering. Careful risk-benefit decision-making regarding various treatment options in the postpartum should be discussed with the mother. Risks of untreated depression include poor bonding with the infant, lack of self care, infant neglect and infanticide.Women s Health 06/2009; 5(3):287-95. DOI:10.2217/whe.09.3
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the relationship of positive screening for depression during and after pregnancy with deployment status of the spouse. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by reviewing a departmental database of women who completed the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale during pregnancy from 2007 to 2009. Per departmental protocol, screening is offered at the initial obstetric visit, at 28 weeks of gestation, and at 6 weeks postpartum. A score of 14 or higher was considered high risk for having depression, and referral for additional evaluation was recommended. Included in our survey was an additional question that asked if the patient's spouse was currently deployed, returning from deployment, preparing to deploy, or if no deployment was planned. All data were entered into an electronic database and statistical analysis performed comparing Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores at each time period and deployment status. A total of 3,956 surveys were complete and available for analysis. The risk of a positive screen was more than doubled compared with the control group (no deployment planned) if the spouse was deployed during the 28-32 week visit (4.3% compared with 13.1%, P=.012) or the postpartum period (8.1% compared with 16.2%, P=.006). Deployment status has a measurable effect on the prevalence of elevated depression screening scores during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. These findings suggest that more intense monitoring, assessment, and treatment may be warranted for this at-risk population. II.Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2010; 116(3):679-84. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181eb6c84 · 5.18 Impact Factor