INO80-dependent chromatin remodeling regulates early and late stages of mitotic homologous recombination.
ABSTRACT Chromatin remodeling is emerging as a critical regulator of DNA repair factor access to DNA damage, and optimum accessibility of these factors is a major determinant of DNA repair outcome. Hence, chromatin remodeling is likely to play a key role in genome stabilization and tumor suppression. We previously showed that nucleosome eviction near double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeast is regulated by the INO80 nucleosome remodeling complex and is defective in mutants lacking the Arp8 subunit of INO80. In the absence of homologous donor sequences, RPA recruitment to a DSB appeared normal in arp8Delta, but Rad51 recruitment was defective. We now show that the early strand invasion step of homologous recombination (HR) is markedly delayed in an arp8Delta haploid, but there is only a minor defect in haploid HR efficiency (MAT switching). In an arp8Delta diploid, interhomolog DSB repair by HR shows a modest defect that is partially suppressed by overexpression of Rad51 or its mediator, Rad52. In wild type cells, DSB repair typically results in gene conversion, and most gene conversion tracts are continuous, reflecting efficient mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA. In contrast, arp8Delta gene conversion tracts are longer and frequently discontinuous, indicating defects in late stages of HR. Interestingly, when a homologous donor sequence is present, Rad51 is recruited normally to a DSB in arp8Delta, but its transfer to the donor is delayed, and this correlates with defective displacement of donor nucleosomes. We propose that retained nucleosomes at donors destabilize heteroduplex DNA or impair mismatch recognition, reflected in delayed strand invasion and altered conversion tracts.
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ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD51, RAD55, and RAD57 genes, required for genetic recombination and DNA double-strand-break repair, encode proteins homologous to one another and to the Escherichia coli RecA protein. Rad51 protein catalyzes the DNA strand-exchange reaction with a dependence on ATP and on the heterotrimeric single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding factor replication protein A (RPA). By several independent criteria, RAD55- and RAD57-encoded products are shown here to exist as a stable heterodimer, with a dissociation constant of <2 x 10(-10) M. In strand exchange, the reaction proceeds efficiently if RPA is incorporated after nucleation of Rad51 onto ssDNA, but if RPA is present during the nucleation phase, as is likely the case in vivo, the amount of strand-exchange products becomes relatively insignificant. Inclusion of the Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer with Rad51 and RPA results in a marked stimulation of strand exchange, providing evidence for a role of the Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer in overcoming the inhibitory effect of RPA.Genes & Development 05/1997; 11(9):1111-21. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A single double-strand break (DSB) induced by HO endonuclease triggers both repair by homologous recombination and activation of the Mec1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast. Here we report that DNA damage checkpoint activation by a DSB requires the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (Cdc28) in budding yeast. CDK1 is also required for DSB-induced homologous recombination at any cell cycle stage. Inhibition of homologous recombination by using an analogue-sensitive CDK1 protein results in a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining. CDK1 is required for efficient 5' to 3' resection of DSB ends and for the recruitment of both the single-stranded DNA-binding complex, RPA, and the Rad51 recombination protein. In contrast, Mre11 protein, part of the MRX complex, accumulates at unresected DSB ends. CDK1 is not required when the DNA damage checkpoint is initiated by lesions that are processed by nucleotide excision repair. Maintenance of the DSB-induced checkpoint requires continuing CDK1 activity that ensures continuing end resection. CDK1 is also important for a later step in homologous recombination, after strand invasion and before the initiation of new DNA synthesis.Nature 11/2004; 431(7011):1011-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immunodeficiency, and a tremendous predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. Cells from BS individuals are characterized by a high incidence of chromosomal gaps and breaks, elevated sister chromatid exchange, quadriradial formations, and locus-specific mutations. BS is the consequence of mutations that lead to loss of function of BLM, a gene encoding a helicase with homology to the RecQ helicase family. To delineate the role of BLM in DNA replication, recombination, and repair we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify potential protein partners of the BLM helicase. The C terminus of BLM interacts directly with MLH1 in the yeast-two hybrid assay; far Western analysis and co-immunoprecipitations confirmed the interaction. Cell extracts deficient in BLM were competent for DNA mismatch repair. These data suggest that the BLM helicase and MLH1 function together in replication, recombination, or DNA repair events independent of single base mismatch repair.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(32):30031-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor