INO80-dependent chromatin remodeling regulates early and late stages of mitotic homologous recombination.
ABSTRACT Chromatin remodeling is emerging as a critical regulator of DNA repair factor access to DNA damage, and optimum accessibility of these factors is a major determinant of DNA repair outcome. Hence, chromatin remodeling is likely to play a key role in genome stabilization and tumor suppression. We previously showed that nucleosome eviction near double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeast is regulated by the INO80 nucleosome remodeling complex and is defective in mutants lacking the Arp8 subunit of INO80. In the absence of homologous donor sequences, RPA recruitment to a DSB appeared normal in arp8Delta, but Rad51 recruitment was defective. We now show that the early strand invasion step of homologous recombination (HR) is markedly delayed in an arp8Delta haploid, but there is only a minor defect in haploid HR efficiency (MAT switching). In an arp8Delta diploid, interhomolog DSB repair by HR shows a modest defect that is partially suppressed by overexpression of Rad51 or its mediator, Rad52. In wild type cells, DSB repair typically results in gene conversion, and most gene conversion tracts are continuous, reflecting efficient mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA. In contrast, arp8Delta gene conversion tracts are longer and frequently discontinuous, indicating defects in late stages of HR. Interestingly, when a homologous donor sequence is present, Rad51 is recruited normally to a DSB in arp8Delta, but its transfer to the donor is delayed, and this correlates with defective displacement of donor nucleosomes. We propose that retained nucleosomes at donors destabilize heteroduplex DNA or impair mismatch recognition, reflected in delayed strand invasion and altered conversion tracts.
SourceAvailable from: Lorraine S Symington[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell.Genetics 11/2014; 198(3):795-835. DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.166140 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Catalytically active proteins with divergent dual functions are often described as 'moonlighting'. In this work we characterize a new, chromatin-based function of Lys20, a moonlighting protein that is well known for its role in metabolism. Lys20 was initially described as homocitrate synthase (HCS), the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway in yeast. Its nuclear localization led to the discovery of a key role for Lys20 in DNA damage repair through its interaction with the MYST family histone acetyltransferase Esa1. Overexpression of Lys20 promotes suppression of DNA damage sensitivity of esa1 mutants. In this work, by taking advantage of LYS20 mutants that are active in repair but not in lysine biosynthesis, the mechanism of suppression of esa1 was characterized. First we analyzed the chromatin landscape of esa1 cells, finding impaired histone acetylation and eviction. Lys20 was recruited to sites of DNA damage, and its overexpression promoted enhanced recruitment of the INO80 remodeling complex to restore normal histone eviction at the damage sites. This study improves understanding of the evolutionary, structural and biological relevance of independent activities in a moonlighting protein and links metabolism to DNA damage repair. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; 43(3). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1405 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The double membrane of the eukaryotic nucleus surrounds the genome, constraining it to a nuclear sphere. Proteins, RNA protein particles and artificial chromosome rings diffuse rapidly and freely throughout the nucleoplasm, while chromosomal loci show subdiffusive movement with varying degrees of constraint. In situ biochemical approaches and live imaging studies have revealed the existence of nuclear subcompartments that are enriched for specific chromatin states and/or enzymatic activities. This sequestration is thought to enhance the formation of heterochromatin, particularly when factors of limited abundance are involved. Implicit in the concept of compartmentation is the idea that chromatin is able to move from one compartment to another. Indeed, in budding yeast, gene activation, repression and the presence of persistent DNA double-strand breaks each has been shown to provoke subnuclear relocalization of chromatin. In some cases, movement has been linked to the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, more specifically to the Snf2-related ATPase-containing complexes, SWR-C and INO80-C. Here we examine how these multi-subunit remodelers contribute to chromatin-based processes linked to the DNA damage response. We review recent evidence that supports a role for yeast SWR-C and INO80-C in determining the subnuclear position of damaged domains and finally, we recap the multiple ways in which these remodelers contribute to genomic integrity.Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2014; 427(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2014.10.015 · 3.96 Impact Factor