Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on mouse mammary gland development and differentiation resulting from cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures.

U.S. EPA, ORD, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 12/2008; 27(3-4):289-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.11.054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The adverse consequences of developmental exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are established in mice, and include impaired development of the mammary gland (MG). However, the relationships between timing or route of exposure, and consequences in the MG have not been characterized. To address the effects of these variables on the onset and persistence of MG effects in female offspring, timed pregnant CD-1 dams received PFOA by oral gavage over various gestational durations. Cross-fostering studies identified the 5mg/kg dose, under either lactational- or intrauterine-only exposures, to delay MG development as early as postnatal day (PND) 1, persisting beyond PND 63. Intrauterine exposure during the final days of pregnancy caused adverse MG developmental effects similar to that of extended gestational exposures. These studies confirm a window of MG sensitivity in late fetal and early neonatal life, and demonstrate developmental PFOA exposure results in early and persistent MG effects, suggesting permanent consequences.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The heritable component of breast cancer accounts for only a small proportion of total incidences. Environmental and lifestyle factors are therefore considered one of the major influencing components increasing breast cancer risk. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment. The estrogenic property of EDCs has thus seen many associations between ongoing exposures and the development of endocrine-related diseases, including breast cancer. The environment consists of a heterogenous population of EDCs and despite many identified modes of action, including that of altering the epigenome, drawing definitive correlations to breast cancer has been a point of much discussion. In this review we describe in detail well characterised EDCs and their actions in the environment; their ability to disrupt mammary gland formation in animal and human experimental models; and their associations with exposure and breast cancer risk. We also highlight the susceptibility of early-life exposure of each EDC to mediate epigenetic alterations, and where possible describe how these epigenome changes influence breast cancer risk.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 02/2014; DOI:10.1530/ERC-13-0513 · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of novel polyfluorenes, soluble exclusively in perfluorinated solvents, were prepared. The new materials were studied with regard to orthogonal processing of organic electronic materials. The desired solubility was achieved by introducing semifluorinated side chains to the fluorene monomers. Since the use of long perfluoroalkyl chains (RF) is restricted due to public health concerns, a synthetic route for polyfluorenes with short RF chains branched by aromatic units has been developed. The photophysical behavior of the resulting polymers was investigated in solution and thin films by UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yields were found to be in the range of those of alkylated polyfluorenes. The electroluminescent properties were studied in single-layer polymer light-emitting diodes, with the new polymers as active materials, which exhibited similar characteristics to previously published single-layer devices with polyfluorenes containing long RF. The wetting properties of different polyfluorene films containing fluorinated, polar, polyethylene glycol, or nonpolar alkyl groups were investigated by contact angle measurements.
    Israel Journal of Chemistry (Online) 06/2014; 54(5-6). DOI:10.1002/ijch.201400014 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In contrast to current methods of expert-based narrative review, the Navigation Guide is a systematic and transparent method for synthesizing environmental health research from multiple evidence streams. The Navigation Guide was developed to effectively and efficiently translate the available scientific evidence into timely prevention-oriented action. Objectives: We applied the Navigation Guide systematic review method to answer the question “Does fetal developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or its salts affect fetal growth in animals ?” and to rate the strength of the experimental animal evidence. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature, applied prespecified criteria to the search results to identify relevant studies, extracted data from studies, obtained additional information from study authors, conducted meta-analyses, and rated the overall quality and strength of the evidence. Results: Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. From the meta-analysis of eight mouse gavage data sets, we estimated that exposure of pregnant mice to increasing concentrations of PFOA was associated with a change in mean pup birth weight of –0.023 g (95% CI: –0.029, –0.016) per 1-unit increase in dose (milligrams per kilogram body weight per day). The evidence, consisting of 15 mammalian and 6 nonmammalian studies, was rated as “moderate” and “low” quality, respectively. Conclusion: Based on this first application of the Navigation Guide methodology, we found sufficient evidence that fetal developmental exposure to PFOA reduces fetal growth in animals. Citation: Koustas E, Lam J, Sutton P, Johnson PI, Atchley DS, Sen S, Robinson KA, Axelrad DA, Woodruff TJ. 2014. The Navigation Guide—evidence-based medicine meets environmental health: systematic review of nonhuman evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 122:1015–1027;
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; 122(10). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307177 · 7.03 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014