A comparative study of freezing single cells and spheroids: towards a new model system for optimizing freezing protocols for cryobanking of human tumours.
ABSTRACT Cryopreservation of human tumour cells and tissue is a valuable tool for retrospective analysis and for the transport and handling of biopsy material. Tumour tissue consists of different cell types, which have different optimal freezing conditions, and extracellular matrix. A well-defined and authentic model system is required for developing new freezing protocols and media. This work describes the use of L929 and PC-3 spheroids as new model systems for freezing human tumours. Cell suspension and spheroids were frozen in different vessels (1 ml cryovials and a special, cryo-compatible 30 x 25 microl multi well plate) at slow rate (1 degrees C/min). Freezing media were combinations of culture or tumour transport medium (Liforlab) with the cryoprotective agents, Me(2)SO, trehalose and modified starch. We also present a new method of evaluating the viability of three dimensional multicellular systems to compare thawed spheroids objectively. Best viability (70%) of L929 spheroids occurred with a combination of Liforlab and starch hydrolysis product. The best cryopreservation results for spheroids were found with extracellular cryoprotectants, while optimum viability of single cells was achieved with Me(2)SO.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The technique of immunoisolated transplantation has seen in the last twenty years improvements in biocompatibility, long term stability and methods for avoidance of fibrosis in alginate capsules. However, two major problems are not yet solved: living cellular material that is not centered in the capsule is not properly protected from the hosts' immune system and the total transplant volume needs to be reduced. To solve these problems, we present a method for applying fully biocompatible alginate multilayers to a barium-alginate core without the use of polycations. We report on the factors that influence layer formation and stability and can therefore provide data for full adjustability of the additional layer. Although known for yeast and plant cells, this technique has not previously been demonstrated with mammalian cells or ultra-high viscous alginates. Viability of murine insulinoma cells was investigated by live-dead staining and live cell imaging, for murine Langerhans' islets viability and insulin secretion have been measured. No hampering effects of the second alginate layer were found. This multi-layer technique therefore has great potential for clinical and in vitro use and is likely to be central in alginate matrix based immunoisolated cell therapy.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73498. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Analysis of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) is important for evaluating new vaccines in immune based therapies and in pathogenesis studies. To ensure comparable assay results from different laboratories and points of time, collaborative research in multicenter trials needs reliable and reproducible cryopreservation protocols that maintain cell viability and functionality. Current cryomedia consist largely of fetal bovine serum (FBS), a natural mix of growth factors, cytokines, and undefined compounds. Standardized procedures are not possible, as FBS can affect the antigen-specific T-cell response, the most important parameter in functionality assays. Also, worldwide sample exchange is complicated by the strict import restrictions on FBS, because of transfection risk. After establishing a serum-free cryopreservation protocol that maintains cell viability, recovery and antigen-specific T-cell response of PBMC comparably to FBS-based cryomedia (Germann et al., 2011), the aim of this study was the complete avoidance of animal proteins and products in combination with efficient cryopreservation. As long-term stability of the cryopreservation process is crucial for retrospective evaluation of samples at different points of time, PBMC were analyzed after storage for maximal four weeks and again after approximately six months. The cryopreservation efficiency of the protein-free and fully chemically defined cryomedium was comparable to FBS-medium after storage for few weeks and several months. Directly after thawing, this medium yielded viabilities over 97% and recovery values over 84%. Also, the specific T-cell functionality was preserved. Additionally, short-term and six month cryopreservation gave comparable results. The fully chemically defined medium presented here will increase standardization and reproducibility of analysis in multicenter-studies or in retrospective evaluation.Journal of immunological methods 05/2012; 382(1-2):24-31. · 2.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules.Xenotransplantation 06/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor