Article

Antidepressants for the treatment of chronic pain.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Drugs (Impact Factor: 4.13). 02/2008; 68(18):2611-32. DOI: 10.2165/0003495-200868180-00007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic pain represents one of the most important public health problems and, in addition to classical analgesics, antidepressants are an essential part of the therapeutic strategy. This article reviews available evidence on the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in major chronic pain conditions; namely, neuropathic pain, headaches, low back pain, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and cancer pain. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses published from 1991 to March 2008 were retrieved through MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane database using numerous key words for pain and antidepressants. In summary, evidence supports the use of tricyclic antidepressants in neuropathic pain, headaches, low back pain, fibromyalgia and IBS. The efficacy of the newer serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors is less supported by evidence, but can be recommended in neuropathic pain, migraines and fibromyalgia. To date, evidence does not support an analgesic effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but beneficial effects on well-being were reported in several chronic pain conditions. These results are discussed in the light of current insights in the neurobiology of pain, the reciprocal relationship between pain and depression, and future developments in this field of research.

1 Follower
 · 
192 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction In chronic pain disorders, galanin (GAL) is able to either facilitate or inhibit nociception in the spinal cord but the contribution of supraspinal galanin to pain signalling is mostly unknown. The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) is rich in galanin receptors (GALR) and is involved in behavioural hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of supraspinal GAL to behavioural hyperalgesia in experimental monoarthritis. Methods In Wistar-Han males with a four week kaolin/carrageenan-induced monoarthritis (ARTH), paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) was assessed before and after DMH administration of exogenous GAL, a non-specific GALR antagonist (M40), a specific GALR1 agonist (M617) and a specific GALR2 antagonist (M871). Additionally, the analysis of c-Fos expression after GAL injection in the DMH was used to investigate the potential involvement of brainstem pain control centres. Finally, electrophysiological recordings were performed to evaluate whether pronociceptive On- or antinociceptive Off-like cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) relay the effect of GAL. Results Exogenous GAL in the DMH decreased PWL in ARTH and SHAM animals, an effect that was mimicked by a GALR1 agonist (M617). In SHAM animals, an unselective GALR antagonist (M40) increased PWL, while a GALR2 antagonist (M871) decreased PWL. M40 or M871 failed to influence PWL in ARTH animals. Exogenous GAL increased c-Fos expression in the RVM and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), with effects being more prominent in SHAM than ARTH animals. Exogenous GAL failed to influence activity of RVM On- or Off-like cells of SHAM and ARTH animals. Conclusions Overall, exogenous GAL in the DMH had a pronociceptive effect that is mediated by GALR1 in healthy and arthritic animals and is associated with alterations of c-Fos expression in RVM and DRN that are serotonergic brainstem nuclei known to be involved in the regulation of pain.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11)(11):e113077. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113077 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: It is difficult to overestimate the personal and socioeconomic impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP). It is the leading cause of years lost to disability and poses the highest economic toll among chronic illnesses. Despite the strong need for extensive research efforts, few drugs have consistently demonstrated effectiveness for this condition. Areas covered: In this review, the epidemiology, rationale for mechanism-based treatment, competitive environment and market trends, and the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting over 15 different classes of analgesic medications studied for CLBP or related pain conditions are discussed. Treatments are divided by drug category, type of CLBP they are likely to treat (e.g., neuropathic or mechanical), and whether they are new formulations of existing treatments, new indications for existing treatments or represent novel mechanisms of action. Databases searched included MEDLINE, Embase, Pharmaprojects and various clinical trial registries. Expert opinion: Many barriers exist for the development of medications for CLBP including difficulties in identifying pathophysiological mechanisms, biologic resiliency secondary to multiple concurrent pain pathways and off-target and sometimes serious side effects. Nevertheless, the volume and diversity of novel molecular entities has continued to surge and includes possible disease-modifying therapies such as gene and stem cell therapy.
    Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 12/2014; 20(1):1-25. DOI:10.1517/14728214.2015.993379 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing knowledge regarding pain modulation, the understanding of the mechanisms behind a complex and pathologic chronic pain condition is still unclear. These knowledge gaps might result in ineffective therapeutic approaches to relief painful sensations. As a result, severe untreated chronic pain frequently triggers the onset of new disorders such as depression and/or anxiety, and therefore, both the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain become seriously compromised, prompting a self-perpetuating cycle of symptomatology. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are molecules strongly implicated in the somatic component of pain at the spinal cord level and have been emerging as mediators of the emotional-affective component as well. Although these molecules might represent good biomarkers, their use as pharmacological targets is still open to discussion as paradoxical information has been obtained. Here we review the current scientific literature regarding ERK1/2 signaling in the modulation of pain, depression and anxiety, including the emotional-affective spheres of the pain experience. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 02/2015; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.02.010 · 4.03 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
225 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014