Vitamin and Mineral Use and Risk of Prostate Cancer: The Case-Control Surveillance Study Editorial Comment

Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.96). 07/2009; 20(5):691-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-008-9282-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many studies have evaluated the association between vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of prostate cancer, with inconclusive results.
The authors examined the relation of use of multivitamins as well as several single vitamin and mineral supplements to the risk of prostate cancer risk among 1,706 prostate cancer cases and 2,404 matched controls using data from the hospital-based case-control surveillance study conducted in the United States. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression model.
For use of multivitamins that did not contain zinc, the multivariable odds ratios of prostate cancer were 0.6 for 1-4 years, 0.8 for 5-9 years, and 1.2 for 10 years or more, respectively (p for trend = 0.70). Men who used zinc for ten years or more, either in a multivitamin or as a supplement, had an approximately two-fold (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6) increased risk of prostate cancer. Vitamin E, beta-carotene, folate, and selenium use were not significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer.
The finding that long-term zinc intake from multivitamins or single supplements was associated with a doubling in risk of prostate cancer adds to the growing evidence for an unfavorable effect of zinc on prostate cancer carcinogenesis.


Available from: Yuqing Zhang, Feb 24, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deficiency or excess of certain trace elements has been considered as risk factor for prostate cancer. This study was aimed to detect differential changes and mutual correlations of selected trace elements in prostate cancer tissue versus benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue. Zinc, copper, iron, calcium and selenium were analysed in histologically proven 15 prostate cancer tissues and 15 benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Unpaired two tailed t test/Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to compare the level of trace elements, elemental ratios and their interrelations. As compared to benign prostatic tissue, malignant prostatic tissue had significantly lower selenium (p = 0.038) and zinc (p = 0.043) concentrations, a lower zinc/iron ratio (p = 0.04) and positive correlation of selenium with zinc (r = 0.71, p = 0.02) and iron (r = 0.76, p = 0.009). Considerably divergent interrelationship of elements and elemental ratios in prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia was noted. Understanding of differential elemental changes and their interdependence may be useful in defining the complex metabolic alterations in prostate carcinogenesis with potential for development of element based newer diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies. Further studies may be needed to elucidate this complex relationship between trace elements and prostate carcinogenesis.
    Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12291-015-0497-x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of folate on the risk of developing prostate cancer. We performed a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of folate blood levels and folate intake, and the risk of prostate cancer. Four electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, Embase and Current Contents Connect) were searched to 11 October 2013, with no language restrictions for observational studies that measured folate intake or blood levels and the risk of prostate cancer. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. The dietary folate meta-analysis comprising 11 studies with 15 336 cases and a total sample size of 146 782 found no statistically significant association with prostate cancer, with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.89-1.06). The total folate meta-analysis comprising of 5 studies with 7114 cases and a total sample size of 93 781 also found no statistically significant association with prostate cancer, with an OR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.82-1.19). The blood folate meta-analysis comprising of seven studies with 6122 cases and a total sample size of 10 232 found an increased risk of prostate cancer with high blood folate levels, with an OR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.06-1.93). There was significant heterogeneity (I(2)=79.5%, P<0.01). Removal of an outlier study removed the heterogeneity (I(2)=0.0%, P=0.54) and the association remained significant with an OR of 1.14 (95% CI 1.02-1.28). Dietary and total folate intake do not appear to be significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer. High blood folate levels are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. These conclusions are limited by the predominance of included studies originating from developed countries with mostly Caucasian populations. Further research in populations with a high prevalence of non-Caucasian backgrounds is needed.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 13 May 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.16.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 05/2014; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.16 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data indicate that selenium status is inversely connected with cancer risk. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that most inorganic and organic forms of selenium compounds have an anticancer action. This work investigated the impact of organic selenium on the multiple signalling pathways involved in the inhibition of the viability of prostate cancer cells. Prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC-3) were incubated with seleno-l-methionine (SeMet) at four concentrations and cell viability and programmed cell death were determined by the WST-1, BrdU assays and Tali image based cytometer. The expression of chosen cell-cycle regulatory genes was determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis and confirmed at the protein level. SeMet treatment of PC-3 cells resulted in an inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibition of proliferation correlated with the up-regulation of gene expression and the protein levels of CCNG1, CHEK1, CDKN1C and GADD45A, whereas SeMet down-regulated the expression of CCNA1 and CDK6 genes. Therefore SeMet inhibits the proliferative activity of prostate cancer cells by a direct influence on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression.
    Journal of applied biomedicine 04/2014; 12(2):87–95. DOI:10.1016/j.jab.2013.02.002 · 1.78 Impact Factor